SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 001-40974
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
|(Translation of Registrant’s Name Into English)||(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)|
Malta, NY 12020
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Dr. Thomas Caulfield, Chief Executive Officer
400 Stonebreak Road Extension
Malta, NY 12020
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered|
|Ordinary shares, par value US$0.02 per share||GFS||The NASDAQ Global Select Market|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
(Title of Class)
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
As of December 31, 2021, 531,845,744 ordinary shares, par value US$0.02 per share, were outstanding.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15)(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
|☐|| Accelerated Filer||☐|| Non-Accelerated Filer|
|Emerging Growth Company||☐|
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP ☐
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☑
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 20-F (the “Annual Report”) are or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. securities laws. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections. These forward-looking statements appear in a number of places throughout this Annual Report including, but not limited to “Risk Factors,” “Business Overview,” and “Results of Operations.” Words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “should,” “believe,” “hope,” “target,” “project,” “goals,” “estimate,” “potential,” “predict,” “may,” “will,” “might,” “could,” “intend,” “shall” and variations of these terms and similar expressions are intended to identify these forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management.
By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industries in which we operate may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report. Important factors that could cause those differences include, but are not limited to:
•general global economic conditions;
•our ability to meet production requirements under long-term supply agreements;
•our business and operating strategies and plans for the development of existing and new businesses, ability to implement such strategies and plans and expected time;
•our reliance on a small number of customers;
•our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;
•the seasonality, volatility and cyclical nature of the semiconductor and microelectronics industry;
•expected changes in our revenue, costs or expenditures;
•our dividend policy;
•our assumptions and estimates regarding design wins;
•our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;
•our expectations regarding our relationships with customers, contract manufacturers, component suppliers, third-party service providers, strategic partners and other stakeholders;
•our expectations regarding our capacity to develop, manufacture and deliver semiconductor products in fulfillment of our contractual commitments;
•our ability to conduct our manufacturing operations without disruptions;
•our ability to manage our capacity and production facilities effectively;
•our ability to develop new technologies successfully and remain a technological leader;
•our ability to maintain control over expansion and facility modifications;
•our ability to generate growth or profitable growth;
•our ability to maintain and protect our intellectual property;
•our ability to hire and maintain qualified personnel;
•our effective tax rate or tax liability;
•our ability to acquire required equipment and supplies necessary to meet customer demand;
•the increased competition from other companies and our ability to retain and increase our market share;
•the potential business or economic disruptions caused by current and future pandemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
•developments in, or changes to, laws, regulations, governmental policies, incentives and taxation affecting our operations relating to our industry; and
•assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.
We caution you that the foregoing list does not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report.
Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our strategy and future plans, future business condition and financial results, our capital expenditure plans, our capacity management plans, expectations as to the commercial production using more advanced technologies, technological upgrades, investment in research and development, future market demand, future regulatory or other developments in our industry, business expansion plans or new investments as well as business acquisitions and financing plans. Please see “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” for a further discussion of certain factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. In any event, these statements speak only as of their dates, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any of them, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
You should carefully consider the “Risk Factors” and subsequent public statements, or reports filed with or furnished to the SEC, before making any investment decision with respect to our securities. If any of these trends, risks or uncertainties actually occurs or continues, our business, financial condition or operating results could be materially adversely affected, the trading prices of our securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.
As used in this Annual Report, all references to “we”, “us”, “our”, the “Company” and "GF” are to GlobalFoundries Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
B.Capitalization and Indebtedness
C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
D.Risk Factors Summary
The following important factors, and those factors described in other reports submitted to, or filed with, the SEC, among other factors, could affect our actual results and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, and that such factors may adversely affect our business and financial status and therefore the value of your investment:
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
•Global economic and political conditions could materially and adversely affect us.
•We have long-term supply agreements with certain customers that obligate us to meet specific production requirements, which may expose us to liquidated and other damages, require us to return advanced payments, require us to provide products and services at reduced or negative margins and constrain our ability to reallocate our production capacity to serve new customers or otherwise.
•Our strategy of securing and maintaining long-term supply contracts and expanding our production capacity may not be successful.
•We depend on a small number of customers for a significant portion of our revenue and any loss of this or our other key customers, including potentially through further customer consolidation, could result in significant declines in our revenue.
•We rely on a complex silicon supply chain and breakdowns in that chain could affect our ability to produce our products.
•Reductions in demand and average selling prices for our customers’ end products (e.g., consumer electronics).
•Our competitors have announced expansions and may continue to expand in the United States and Europe, which could materially and adversely affect our competitive position.
•Sales to government entities and highly regulated organizations are subject to a number of challenges and added risks, and we could fail to comply with these heightened compliance requirements, or effectively manage these challenges or risks.
Risks Related to Manufacturing, Operations and Expansion
•If we are unable to manage our capacity and production facilities effectively, our competitiveness may be weakened.
•Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, costly and potentially vulnerable to impurities and other disruptions, and cost increases, that can significantly increase our costs and delay product shipments to our customers.
•Our profit margin may substantially decline if we are unable to continually improve our manufacturing yields, maintain high shipment utilization or fail to optimize the process technology mix of our wafer production.
•If we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials in a timely manner and at commercially reasonable prices our revenue and profitability may decline.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
•Any failure to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
•There is a risk that our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information will be stolen, used in an unauthorized manner, or compromised.
•The laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate.
•Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our technology without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties and we may not be aware of such infringements, misappropriations or violations.
•We may be unable to provide technology to our customers if we lose the support of our technology partners.
•We have been and may continue to become subject to intellectual property disputes, which are costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.
Political, Regulatory and Legal Risks
•Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations expose us to liability and risk of non-compliance, and any such liability or non-compliance may adversely affect our business.
•We are subject to governmental export and customs compliance requirements that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate the controls.
•We are currently and may in the future become subject to litigation that could result in substantial costs, divert or continue to divert management’s attention and resources.
Risks Related to Our Status as a Controlled Company and Foreign Private Issuer
•Mubadala will continue to have substantial control over the Company, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control, and otherwise affect the prevailing market price of our ordinary shares.
•We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, are not subject to U.S. proxy rules but are subject to reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. issuer.
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
Global economic and political conditions could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
The semiconductor industry relies on a global supply chain and is considered strategically important by major trading countries, including the United States, China, and countries in the EU. Political, economic and financial crises have in the past negatively affected and in the future could negatively affect the semiconductor industry and its end markets. Our business may also be materially affected by the impact of geopolitical tensions and related actions. Recently, there have been political and trade tensions among, and between, a number of the world’s major economies, most recently between Russia and the member nations of NATO and others and, most notably in our industry between the United States and China, with Hong Kong and Taiwan implicated in the tensions. These tensions have resulted in the implementation of trade barriers, including the use of economic sanctions and export control restrictions against certain countries and individual companies. For example, over the past two years, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) placed one of the largest mobile handset and 5G infrastructure providers in the world, Huawei, and China’s largest semiconductor foundry, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (“SMIC”), on the BIS Entity List. Violations of these economic sanctions and export control restrictions can result in significant civil and criminal penalties. These trade barriers have had a particular impact on the semiconductor industry and related markets. Prolonged or increased use of trade barriers may result in a decrease in the growth of the global economy and semiconductor industry and could cause turmoil in global markets, which in turn often results in declines in our customers’ electronic products sales and could decrease demand for our products and services. Also, any increase in the use of economic sanctions or export control restrictions to
target certain countries and companies could impact our ability to continue supplying products and services to those customers and our customers’ demand for our products and services, and could disrupt semiconductor supply chains. Finally, the recent conflict between Russia and Ukraine has created uncertainty regarding potential impacts on supply of materials needed for our operations (including natural gas), particularly in Europe, and regarding our customers’ potential sales of electronic products and components to customers in Russia. The conflict has also created uncertainty about broader impacts that economic sanctions, prioritization of humanitarian shipments, and export control restrictions may have on global supply chains and markets generally.
Any future systemic political, economic or financial crisis or market volatility, including interest rate fluctuations, inflation or deflation and changes in economic, trade, fiscal and monetary policies in major economies, could cause revenue or profits for us or the semiconductor industry as a whole to decline dramatically. If the economic conditions in the markets in which our customers operate or the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, the demand for our products and services may decrease and impairments, write-downs and other accounting charges may be required, which could reduce our operating income and net income. Further, in times of market instability, sufficient external financing may not be available to us on a timely basis, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If sufficient external financing is not available when we need such financing to meet our demand-driven capital requirements, we may be forced to curtail expansion, modify plans and delay the deployment of new or differentiated technologies, products, or services until we obtain such financing. Further escalation of trade tensions, the increased use of economic sanctions or export control restrictions or any future global systemic crisis or economic downturn could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We have long-term supply agreements with certain customers that obligate us to meet specific production requirements, which may expose us to liquidated and other damages, require us to return advanced payments, require us to provide products and services at reduced or negative margins and constrain our ability to reallocate our production capacity to serve new customers or otherwise.
In response to the current global semiconductor supply shortage and in connection with our focus on differentiated technology platforms and deeper customer engagements, we have entered into multiple long-term supply agreements that provide for significant customer commitments in return for capacity reservation commitments from us. In many cases, in connection with these arrangements we have received, or will receive, customer advanced payments and capacity reservation fees. If we are unable to satisfy our obligations under these contracts, we may be forced to return such payments which could result in significant cash expenditures. Under most of our long-term supply agreements, we must maintain sufficient capacity at our manufacturing facilities to meet anticipated customer demand for our proprietary products. From time to time, this requires us to invest in expansion or improvements of those facilities, which often involves substantial cost and other risks, such as delays in completion. Such expanded manufacturing capacity may still be insufficient, or may not come online soon enough, to meet customer demand and we may have to limit the amount of products we can supply to customers, forgo sales or lose customers as a result. Further, capacity reserved for certain customers could cause us to breach obligations to other customers due to capacity constraints, or prevent us from serving new customers. If we are unable to satisfy our obligations under our customer agreements, we may be subject to significant liquidated damages or penalties, which could result in significant cash expenditures and require us to raise additional capital. Conversely, if we overestimate customer demand or a customer defaults on its purchase or payment obligations to us, we could experience underutilization of capacity at these facilities without a corresponding reduction in fixed costs. Our inability to maintain appropriate capacity could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Our strategy of securing and maintaining long-term supply contracts and expanding our production capacity may not be successful.
We have undertaken, and will continue to undertake, various business strategies to sell a significant portion of our production capacity through long-term supply contracts, grow our production capacity, and improve operating efficiencies and generate cost savings. We cannot assure you that we will successfully implement those business strategies or that implementing these strategies will sustain or improve and not harm our results of operations. In particular, our ability to implement our strategy to enter into long-term supply contracts successfully is subject to certain risks, including:
•customers defaulting on their obligations to us, which may include significant payment obligations;
•our defaulting on our obligations to our customers (for example, due to raw materials shortages, production disruptions, or our subcontractors’ default on test or packaging obligations), which could result in us owing substantial penalties to our customers;
•customers seeking to renegotiate key terms of their contracts, such as pricing and specified volume commitments, in the event market conditions change during the contract term; and
•our inability to extend contracts when they expire.
As a result, we cannot assure you that we will successfully implement this strategy or realize the anticipated benefits of these contracts.
Additionally, the costs involved in implementing our strategies may be significantly greater than we currently anticipate. For example, our ability to complete production capacity expansions or make other operational improvements as planned may be delayed, interrupted or made more costly by the need to obtain environmental and other regulatory approvals, the availability of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, labor and materials, unforeseen hazards, such as weather conditions, and other risks customarily associated with construction projects. Moreover, the cost of expanding production capacity could have a negative impact on our financial results until shipment utilization is sufficient to absorb the incremental costs associated with the expansion.
Our ability to successfully implement these strategies depends on a variety of factors, including, among other things, our ability to finance our operations, maintain high-quality and efficient manufacturing operations, respond to competitive and regulatory changes, access semiconductor manufacturing equipment or quality raw materials in a cost-effective and timely manner, and retain and attract highly skilled personnel. Further, some of our long-term supply agreements constrain our ability to change product mix within short time frames, given “end of life” provisions in our agreements that require substantial notice periods before we can cease production of existing products. Since 2018, we have been in the process of pivoting our development resources to focus on differentiated technologies, based on an analysis of market dynamics and our competitive strengths. Any failure to continue implementing this strategic pivot in a timely and cost-effective manner could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We depend on a small number of customers for a significant portion of our revenue and any loss of this or our other key customers, including potentially through further customer consolidation, could result in significant declines in our revenue.
We have been largely dependent on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. Our ten largest customers in 2019, 2020 and 2021 accounted for approximately 73%, 73% and 67% of our wafer shipment volume, respectively. We expect that a significant portion of our revenue will continue to come from a relatively limited number of customers. We cannot assure you that our revenue generated from these customers, individually or in the aggregate, will reach or exceed historical levels in any future period. Loss or cancellation of business from, significant changes in scheduled deliveries to, or a decrease of products and services sold to any of these customers could significantly reduce our revenue. Additionally, the increasing trend in mergers and acquisition activities in the semiconductor industry could reduce the total available customer base.
We rely on a complex silicon supply chain and breakdowns in that chain could affect our ability to produce our products and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We rely on a small number of suppliers for wafers, which is a key input into our products. In particular, only a limited number of companies in the world are able to produce silicon-on-insulator (“SOI”) wafers. If there is an insufficient supply of wafers, particularly SOI wafers, to satisfy our requirements, we may need to limit or delay our production, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. If our limited source suppliers and suppliers for wafer preparation were to experience difficulties that affected their manufacturing yields or the quality of the materials they supply to us, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. In particular, we depend on Soitec S.A. (“Soitec”), our largest supplier of SOI wafers, for the timely provision of wafers in order to meet our production goals and obligations to customers. We have entered into multiple long-term agreements with Soitec across a wide spectrum of SOI products. Soitec supplied 46% of our SOI wafers in 2021. In April 2017, we entered into a multi-year materials supply agreement with Soitec that expires in 2022, with automatic annual extensions unless terminated by either party. In that same year, we agreed to an addendum to the materials supply agreement for Fully-Depleted SOI (“FDXTM”) wafers, in particular, as amended and restated in 2021. In November 2020, we agreed to an addendum to our original materials supply agreement to secure supply for 300 millimeter (“mm”) RF SOI, partially-depleted SOI and Silicon Photonics (“SiPh”) wafers. Our supply agreements with Soitec impose mutual obligations, in the form of capacity requirements, minimum purchase requirements and supply share percentages. We may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with such obligations. If we are unable to obtain 300mm SOI wafers from Soitec for any reason, we expect that it would be challenging, if not infeasible, to find a replacement supplier on commercially acceptable terms in the near term. While we are in the process of developing relationships with alternate suppliers, we do not expect to be able to acquire a significant amount of SOI wafers from those suppliers in the near term, and there is no assurance that we will ever be able to do so.
The ability of our suppliers to meet our requirements could be impaired or interrupted by factors beyond their control, such as earthquakes or other natural phenomena, labor strikes or shortages, or political unrest or failure to obtain materials for their suppliers. For example, Soitec is reliant on third-party providers to obtain raw silicon wafers—difficulties in obtaining raw silicon wafers may result in Soitec’s inability to produce SOI wafers. In the event one of our suppliers is unable to deliver products to us or is unwilling to sell materials or components to us, our operations may be adversely affected. Further,
financial or other difficulties faced by our suppliers, or significant changes in demand for the components or materials they use in the products they supply to us, could limit the availability of those products, components, or materials to us. Any breakdown of our wafer supply chain could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Reductions in demand and average selling prices (“ASPs”) for our customers’ end products (e.g., consumer electronics) and increases in inflation may decrease demand for our products and services and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
The substantial majority of our revenue is derived from customers who use our products in intelligent and highly connected devices in markets such as Smart Mobile Devices, Home and Industrial internet of things (“IoT”), Communications Infrastructure & Datacenter, Automotive and Personal Computing. A deterioration or a slowdown in the growth of such end markets resulting in a substantial decrease in the demand for overall global semiconductor foundry services, including our products and services, could adversely affect our revenue and profit margins. Semiconductor manufacturing facilities require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed-cost assets once they are in operation. Because we own our manufacturing facilities, a significant portion of our operating costs are fixed. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or our shipment utilization rate drops, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease our profit margins. Our costs may also increase as a result of, among other things, inflation, which may have a greater impact on our profit margins than ASPs. In the past, there have been periods of sustained decline in ASPs of our customers’ end products and applications. A return to historical trends could place downward pressure on the prices of the components, including our products, that go into such end products and applications. If ASPs decline and our cost reduction programs and actions do not offset the decrease or our costs increase due to inflation or otherwise and are not offset by an increase in ASPs, our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
The seasonality and cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry and periodic overcapacity make us vulnerable to significant and sometimes prolonged economic downturns.
The semiconductor industry has exhibited cyclicality in the past and, at various times, has experienced downturns. Fluctuations in our customers’ demand drive significant variations in order levels for our products and services and can result in volatility in our revenue and earnings. Because our business is, and will continue to be, largely dependent on the requirements of both consumer and industrial high-end technology product suppliers for our services, downturns in this broad industry will likely lead to reduced demand for our products and services.
Demand for our customers’ end products is affected by seasonal variations in market conditions that contribute to the fluctuations of demand and prices for semiconductor services and products. The seasonal sales trends for semiconductor services and products closely mirror those for automotive, consumer electronics, communication and computer sales. These seasonal variations, and seasonal variation changes that we cannot anticipate, may result in increased volatility in our results of operation and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Overcapacity in the semiconductor industry may reduce our revenue, earnings and margins.
The prices that we can charge our customers for manufacturing services are significantly related to the overall worldwide supply of integrated circuits (“ICs”) and semiconductor products. The overall supply of semiconductors is based in part on the capacity of other companies, which is outside of our control. For example, in light of current market conditions, we and some other companies, including competitors with access to material government support, have announced plans to increase capacity expenditures significantly. Additionally, some nations, including China, are investing heavily in developing additional domestic capacity for semiconductor fabrication. We believe such plans, if carried out as planned, will increase the industry-wide capacity and could result in overcapacity in the future. In periods of overcapacity, if we are unable to offset the adverse effects of overcapacity through, among other things, our technology and product mix, we may have to lower the prices we charge our customers for our products and services and/or we may have to operate at significantly less than full capacity. Such actions could reduce our margin and profitability and weaken our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot give any assurance that an increase in the demand for foundry services in the immediate and short-term will not lead to overcapacity in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
If we are unable to attract customers with our technology, respond to fast-changing semiconductor market dynamics or maintain our leadership in product quality, we will become less competitive.
The semiconductor industry and the technologies it brings to market are constantly being created and evolving. We compete by developing process technologies that incorporate increasingly higher performance and advanced features, offering increasing functionality depending upon the customer’s application requirements. If we do not anticipate these changes in technology requirements and fail to rapidly develop new and innovative solutions to meet these demands, we
may not be able to provide foundry services on competitive terms with respect to cost, schedule or volume manufacturing capacity. There is a risk that our competitors may successfully adopt new or more differentiated technology before we do, resulting in us losing design wins (including in cases in which we have expended significant resources to pursue design wins) and market share. If we are unable to continue to offer differentiated services and processes on a competitive and timely basis, we may lose customers to competitors providing similar or better technologies.
A key differentiator in the marketplace is to significantly reduce the time in which technology products or services are launched into the market. If we are unable to meet the shorter time-to-market requirements of our customers or fail to impress them with our newer technology solutions or are unable to allocate or develop new production capacity to meet those customers’ demands in a timely manner, we risk losing their business and not generating the market adoption needed to pay for our development efforts. These factors have also been intensified by the shift of the global technology market to consumer-driven products and increasing concentration of customers and competition. Further, the increasing complexity of technology also imposes challenges for achieving expected product quality, cost and time-to-market expectations. If we fail to maintain quality, it may result in loss of revenue and additional cost, as well as loss of business or customer trust. If we are unable to meet the expected production yields of a new technology, we will not be able to meet the expected costs of that technology. In addition, the market prices for technology and services tend to fall over time, except in times of extreme supply shortage. As a result, if we are unable to offer new differentiated services and processes on a competitive and timely basis, we may need to decrease the prices that we set for our existing services and processes. If we are unable to innovate new and differentiated technologies and bring them to a cost-competitive volume manufacturing scale that meets the demand of our customers, we may become less competitive and our revenue and margins may decline significantly.
External risks also exist that can impact our position as a technology leader. Differentiated technology offerings may rely upon unique or specialized materials as compared to our competitors, including specialized wafers upon which some of our technologies are currently manufactured, raw materials for wafer fabrication, and materials used in the packaging of ICs to enable them to be used in the end products. A disruption in the availability of or quality of these new or unique materials during technology development can impact time-to-market, or have impact on the quality or cost of finished goods in the marketplace. Similarly, our technology roadmap relies on externally sourced design tools and component circuit designs that allow our end customers to more readily realize their products in our technologies, and disruption or delays in our ability to obtain those resources may impair our ability to compete effectively and serve our customers.
The rapidly changing nature of advanced semiconductor technology can also culminate in the emergence of highly disruptive or unconventional technologies and new disruptive solutions using existing technologies, which can create a rapid inflection point leaving those on a conventional technology roadmap path at a significant disadvantage and unprepared to react in a timely manner.
If we are unable to compete effectively with other sophisticated players in the highly competitive foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, we may lose customers and our profit margins and earnings may decrease.
We believe the foundry market is comprised of five major pure-play foundries that accounted for the vast majority of worldwide foundry revenue in 2021. We define a scaled pure-play foundry as a company that focuses on producing ICs for other companies, rather than those of its own design, with more than $2 billion of annual foundry revenue. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (“TSMC”) at $56.8 billion of revenue in 2021 accounted for more than 50% of the total market. Other key competitors include SMIC and United Microelectronics Corporation (“UMC”), as well as the foundry operation services of some integrated device manufacturers, such as Samsung and, more recently, Intel Corporation (“Intel”). Integrated Device Manufacturers (“IDMs”) principally manufacture and sell their own proprietary semiconductor products but may also offer foundry services. Other smaller dedicated foundry competitors include X-FAB Silicon Foundries, Tower Semiconductor Ltd., Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation (“Vanguard”) and WIN Semiconductors Corp. Some of our competitors may offer more advanced or differentiated technologies than we do and some have greater access to capital and substantially greater production capacity, research and development (“R&D”), marketing and other resources, including access to government subsidies and economic stimulus (including protective demand-side measures), than we do. As a result, these companies may be able to compete more aggressively over a longer period of time than we can.
The principal elements of competition in the wafer foundry market include:
•scale and the ability to access capital to fund future growth;
•technical competence, including internal and access to external design enablement capabilities;
•technology leadership and differentiation;
•time-to-volume production and cycle time;
•investment in R&D and related quality of results;
•optimization of the technology mix of wafer production at particular process technology nodes;
•design/technology interaction and resulting chip reliability;
•customer service and design support;
•management expertise; and
•strategic alliances and geographic diversification.
Our ability to compete successfully also depends on factors partially outside of our control, including component supply, intellectual property, including cell libraries that our customers embed in their product designs, and industry and general economic trends.
Our competitors have announced expansions and may continue to expand in the United States and Europe, which could materially and adversely affect our competitive position.
TSMC, Samsung and Intel have announced plans to develop new fabrication facilities (“fabs”) and substantially increase their manufacturing capacity in the United States, and other competitors may seek to do likewise. Similarly, our competitors may seek to develop new fabs in Europe and substantially increase their manufacturing capacity. Such expansions may increase the attractiveness of our competitors to customers who wish to utilize fabs located in the United States or Europe, use geographically dispersed suppliers or mitigate risks posed by geopolitical tensions and export controls. Further, it may lead to increased competition for funding and talent in those jurisdictions. This increased competition could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
The semiconductor industry is capital-intensive and, if we are unable to invest the necessary capital to operate and grow our business, we may not remain competitive.
To remain competitive and comply with evolving regulatory requirements, we must constantly improve our facilities and process technologies and carry out extensive R&D, each of which requires investment of significant amounts of capital. The costs of manufacturing facilities and semiconductor manufacturing equipment continue to rise. We expect to incur additional capital expenditures in connection with our revenue expansion plans to expand our fabs in Dresden, Germany; Malta, New York; and Singapore. On June 22, 2021, we announced plans to spend approximately $4.0 billion to expand our operations in Singapore, and on July 19, 2021 announced fab expansion plans in Malta, New York involving approximately $1.0 billion, with the construction of a new fab on the same campus to follow. Our actual expenditures may exceed our planned spend due to global economic and industry-wide equipment or material price increases during the long lead time to build capacity. Given the fixed-cost nature of our business, we have in the past incurred, and may in the future incur, operating losses if our revenue do not adequately offset the impact of our capital expenditures and the cost of financing these expenditures. Additionally, a significant portion of any operating income we do generate is needed to service our outstanding debt.
We invest significantly in R&D, and to the extent our R&D efforts are unsuccessful, our competitive position may be harmed and we may not be able to realize a return on our investments. To compete successfully, we must maintain a successful R&D effort, develop new product technologies, features and manufacturing processes, and improve our existing products and services, technologies and processes. Our R&D efforts may not deliver the benefits we anticipate. To the extent we do not timely introduce new technologies and features relative to competitors, we could face cost, product performance, and time-to-market disadvantages, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Financing, including equity capital, debt financing, customer co-investments and government subsidies, may not be available on commercially acceptable terms or at all. Any additional debt financing we may undertake could require debt service and financial and operational requirements that could adversely affect our business. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash or raise sufficient capital to meet both our debt service and capital investment requirements, or if we are unable to raise required capital on favorable terms when needed, we may be forced to curtail revenue expansion plans or delay capital investment, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We may not be able to implement our planned growth and development or maintain the differentiation of our solutions if we are unable to recruit and retain key executives, managers and skilled technical personnel.
We rely on the continued services and contributions of our management team and skilled technical and professional personnel. In this industry, the competitive pressures to find and retain the most talented personnel are intense and
constant. The top talent in the industry is often well-known and pursued by competitors. In addition, with the speed of technological and business change, skills need to be constantly refreshed and built upon. Our business could suffer if we are unable to fulfill and sustain resource requirements with qualified individuals in required positions globally. Fulfilling new resource needs on a timely basis continues to be a challenge in this highly competitive market for semiconductor talent. Competition for talent exists in all of our operating regions, emphasizing the importance of strong employee retention, and if we fail to attract and retain top talent, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely impacted.
We receive subsidies and grants in certain countries and regions in which we operate, and a reduction in the amount of governmental funding available to us or demands for repayment could increase our costs and affect our results of operations.
As is the case with other large semiconductor companies, we receive subsidies and grants from governments in certain countries and regions in which we operate. In response to increased geopolitical tensions, national security and supply chain concerns, as well as recent supply shortages, the United States and the European Union are considering new semiconductor industry incentive programs. For example, the United States Congress has passed appropriations bills to fund the Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors for America (“CHIPS”) Act. Similarly, the European Commission recently proposed the European Chips Act. These programs represent potentially significant new sources of government funding for capital and R&D investment for our industry. Historically, we have benefited from these kinds of government programs, and we intend to continue to benefit from government programs to help fund our expansion efforts. However, we may be unable to secure government funding at the levels we expect or at all, and the availability of government funding is outside our control. Moreover, should we terminate any activities or operations related to government funds that we receive or upon which government funds have been conditioned, we may face adverse consequences. In particular, government agencies could seek to recover subsidies or grants from us, seek repayment of loans, or could cancel, reduce or deny our requests for future subsidies or grants. This could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Strong government support in China for capacity expansion, combined with weaker demand from and strained economic relations with that country, could lead to underutilization or significant ASP erosion for fab fill.
China’s aggressive investment in its “buy from China” initiatives have inflated the capital available for technology development in China and resulted in an expansion of fabrication capacity for semiconductors. China’s decision to build capacity for China, to be sourced primarily from indigenous suppliers like SMIC, will have the effect of limiting the Chinese market for other global suppliers like us. Increases in China’s fabrication capacity for semiconductors may also significantly increase the competition we face globally, which may make it more difficult for us to retain and obtain new customers and lead to material reductions in ASPs.
Any outbreak of contagious disease, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Any outbreak of contagious disease, including, but not limited to, COVID-19, Zika virus, Ebola virus, avian or swine influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome, may disrupt our ability to adequately staff our business and may generally disrupt our operations. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has slowed economic growth, including in regions of the world where we, our customers and suppliers operate, and has negatively impacted the global supply chain, market and economies. We have significant operations in the United States, Europe, and Singapore, including supply chain and manufacturing facilities and sales and marketing channels and information technology (“IT”) design and other support services in these countries and regions as well as other countries such as Japan, India, Bulgaria, Taiwan and China.
If the COVID-19 outbreak worsens or continues longer term, or new outbreaks of COVID-19 or other contagious diseases occur, we may experience material adverse effects on our business, including, among other things:
•declines in sales activities and customer orders;
•significant fluctuations in demand for our products and services, which could in turn cause uncertainty for our capacity planning, production delays and reduced workforce availability;
•difficulties in domestic and international travel and communications and interruption;
•delays in our planned expansion in Singapore, including from temporary governmental work stoppage orders to control COVID-19 infection rates or as a result of border closures with Malaysia, both of which have occurred;
•delays in other potential expansion plans; or
•slowdown of R&D activities.
Likewise, such an outbreak of disease could slow or suspend the operations of our suppliers and cause them to be unable to deliver needed raw materials as required. Any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Sales to government entities and highly regulated organizations are subject to a number of challenges and added risks, and our failure to comply with these heightened compliance requirements, or effectively manage these challenges or risks, could impact our operations and financial results.
We currently sell to the U.S. federal government and to customers in highly regulated industries, and may sell to state and local governments and to foreign governmental agency customers in the future. Sales to such entities are subject to a number of compliance challenges and risks, including regarding access to and required protection of classified information. Failure to comply with Foreign Ownership, Control or Influence (“FOCI”) agreements could lead to a loss of our security clearance and certain government business and reputational harm. Selling to governmental and highly regulated entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time-consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. Government contracting requirements may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the government sector until we have attained any revised necessary certification or authorization. Government demand and payment for our products and services are affected by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our products and services. Such sales are made more difficult by the fact that many of our product design and life cycles are very long, compared to public fiscal budget calendars.
Further, governmental and highly regulated entities may demand contract terms that differ from our standard commercial arrangements, and those contract terms may be in some respects less favorable than terms agreed to by private sector customers. Governments routinely retain certain rights to IP developed in connection with government contracts. Such entities may have statutory, contractual or other legal rights to terminate contracts with us or our partners for convenience or for other reasons that are out of our control or influence. Any such terminations, or other adverse actions, may materially adversely affect our ability to contract with other government customers, as well as our reputation, results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. In addition, our U.S. government contracts obligate us to comply with various cybersecurity requirements. These requirements include ongoing investment in systems, policies and personnel, and we expect these requirements to continue to impact our business in the future by increasing our legal, operational and compliance costs.
Certain of our government contracts require us to notify the applicable governmental actor and discuss options with the governmental actor before making certain potential transfers of intellectual property developed under those contracts, and certain of our government contracts impose specific limitations on our use and licensing of certain of our intellectual property. Additionally, production of sensitive, export-controlled products for governmental and highly regulated entities requires adherence to strict export and security controls. In the event of a breach or other security event involving one of these products, we may be subject to investigations to determine the extent and impact to such products, regulatory proceedings, litigation, mitigation and other actions, as well as penalties, fines, increased insurance premiums, indemnification expenditures and administrative, civil and criminal liabilities and reputational harm, each of which could negatively impact operations for multiple products and future business, cause production and sales delays and materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We may be exposed to liabilities if it is determined that our compensation arrangements do not comply with, or are not exempt from, Section 409A of the Code.
Section 409A (“Section 409A”) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“the Code”), sets forth the rules governing non-qualified deferred compensation arrangements. Section 409A contains many technical, complicated and ambiguous rules and regulations, including proposed but not yet finalized regulations that do not currently have the force of law, making compliance with Section 409A difficult to assess and to ensure. While we have attempted to structure our compensation arrangements (including our equity incentive awards) so that they either comply with, or are exempt from, Section 409A, it is possible that some of these compensation arrangements are not so exempt or compliant. In some instances, we have determined that amendments to certain of our compensation arrangements were advisable in order to mitigate or eliminate potential Section 409A non-compliance risk, though there can be no assurance that such amendments will mitigate or eliminate any such risk. If it is determined that any of our compensation arrangements are neither compliant with, nor exempt from, Section 409A, we may be subject to significant liabilities and costs, including penalties for failing to properly report deferred compensation arrangements under Section 409A and to withhold taxes payable by our service providers, including our employees, and we may be required to pay to the applicable governmental authorities the amount of taxes we should have withheld and related interest and penalties. In addition, those of our service providers, including our employees, participating in such arrangements may experience significant adverse tax consequences under Section 409A, including a 20% federal penalty tax imposed on the amount of compensation involved (and, as applicable, similar excise taxes under state law or foreign law). These liabilities may be significant and the imposition of such liabilities may materially affect our employee relations. In addition, in the event any such liabilities were imposed on our service providers, including our employees, we could decide to take remedial action, including making cash payments to adversely affected service
providers, including our employees. Any amounts so paid by us could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Improper disclosure of confidential information could negatively impact our business.
In the ordinary course of our business, we maintain sensitive data on our networks, including our intellectual property and proprietary or confidential business information relating to our business and that of our customers and business partners. In addition, we regularly enter into confidentiality obligations with our customers, suppliers and parties that we license intellectual property to or from. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business and reputation. We have put in place policies, procedures and technological safeguards designed to protect the security of this information. However, we cannot guarantee that this information will not be improperly disclosed or accessed. Disclosure of this information could harm our reputation, subject us to liability under our contracts and harm our relationships with key counterparties, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Risks Related to Manufacturing, Operations and Expansion
If we are unable to manage our capacity and production facilities effectively, our competitiveness may be weakened.
We perform long-term market demand forecasts for our products to manage, and plan for, our overall capacity. Because market conditions are dynamic, our market demand forecasts may change significantly at any time. During periods of decreased demand, certain manufacturing lines or tools in some of our manufacturing facilities may be idled or shut down temporarily, to save costs while preserving capacity. However, if subsequent demand increases rapidly, we may not be able to restore the capacity in a timely manner to take advantage of the upturn. In light of market demand forecasts, we have recently been adding capacity to meet market needs for our products. In some instances, we increase or otherwise manage capacity by transferring technologies from one location to another. Expansion of our capacity will increase our costs. For example, we will need to purchase additional equipment, and hire and train additional personnel to operate the new equipment. In case of a technology transfer, we may also need to source new tooling and materials, train personnel to learn and stabilize new processes and, depending on the technology, obtain government approval for such transfer. If demand does not increase as planned or expansion is delayed, we may not increase our net revenue accordingly, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Because we own and operate high-tech manufacturing facilities, our operations have high costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term, including our costs related to utilization of existing facilities, facility construction and equipment, R&D, and the employment and training of a highly skilled workforce. To the extent demand decreases, capacity does not increase in time to meet demand or we fail to forecast demand accurately, we could be required to write off inventory or record underutilization charges, which would lower our gross margin. To the extent any demand decrease is prolonged, our manufacturing capacity could be underutilized, and we may be required to write down our long-lived assets, which would increase our expenses. We may also be required to shorten the useful life of under-used facilities and equipment and accelerate depreciation.
Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, costly and potentially vulnerable to impurities and other disruptions, and cost increases, that can significantly increase our costs and delay product shipments to our customers.
Our semiconductor manufacturing processes are highly complex, require advanced and costly equipment, difficult to transfer and are continuously being modified to improve manufacturing yields and product performance intended to improve or protect our ability to achieve our revenue and profit plan. Disruptions in manufacturing operations could be caused by numerous issues including impurities in our raw materials (such as chemicals, gases and wafers), supply chain changes to support expansion plans, facilities issues (such as electrical power and water outages), equipment failures (such as performance issues or defects) or IT issues (such as down computer systems and viruses). Any of these issues, and others, could lower production yields or interrupt manufacturing, which could result in the loss of products in process that could cause delivery delays, reduced revenue, increased cost or reduced quality delivered to our customers. These factors could significantly affect our financial results as well as our ability to attract new and retain existing customers.
In the past, we have encountered, among other issues:
•capacity constraints due to changes in product mix or the delayed delivery of equipment critical to our production;
•construction delays during expansions of our clean rooms and other facilities;
•difficulties in upgrading or expanding existing facilities;
•failure of manufacturing execution system or automatic transportation systems;
•unexpected breakdowns in manufacturing equipment and/or related facilities;
•disruptions in connection with changing, transferring or upgrading our process technologies;
•electrical power outages;
•raw materials shortages and impurities; and
•delays in delivery or shortages of spare parts used in the maintenance of our equipment.
If the above issues recur or we face similar challenges in the future, we may suffer delays in our ability to deliver our products, which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. In addition, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to increase our manufacturing capacity and efficiency in the future to the same extent as in the past. Additionally, increases in the costs of key inputs to fabs, including raw materials, electric power and water, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We are subject to risks associated with the development and implementation of new manufacturing technologies.
Production of ICs is a complex process. We are continually engaged in the development of new manufacturing process technologies and features. Forecasting our progress and schedule for developing new process technologies and features is challenging, and at times we encounter unexpected delays due to the complexity of interactions among steps in the manufacturing process, challenges in using new materials, and other issues. We may expend substantial resources on developing new technologies that are ultimately not successful, which may result in our recognizing significant impairment charges. Diagnosing defects in our manufacturing processes often takes a long time, as manufacturing throughput times can delay our receipt of data about defects and the effectiveness of fixes. We are not always successful or efficient in developing or implementing new technologies and manufacturing processes.
Our profit margin may substantially decline if we are unable to continually improve our manufacturing yields, maintain high shipment utilization or fail to optimize the process technology mix of our wafer production.
Our ability to maintain our profit margin depends, in part, on our ability to:
•maintain high capacity utilization;
•maintain or improve our production yields; and
•optimize the technology mix of our production by increasing the number of wafers manufactured by utilizing different processing technologies.
Our shipment utilization affects our operating results because a large percentage of our operating costs is fixed. Our manufacturing yields directly affect our ability to attract and retain customers, as well as the prices of our services. Different technologies load the available capacity differently, and an increase of lower margin product demand could lower the financial performance of a factory while still fully utilizing the available capacity. If we are unable to continuously maintain high capacity utilization, improve our manufacturing yields or optimize the technology mix of our wafer production, our profit margin may substantially decline.
Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, require advanced and costly equipment and are continuously being modified in an effort to improve yields and product performance. Minute impurities or other difficulties in the manufacturing process can lower yields. Further, at the beginning of each semiconductor technological upgrade, the manufacturing yield utilizing the new technology may be lower than the yield under current technology. Our manufacturing efficiency is an important factor in our profitability, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our manufacturing efficiency or increase manufacturing efficiency to the same extent as our competitors.
In addition, as is common in the semiconductor industry, we have from time to time experienced difficulty in effecting transitions to new manufacturing processes. As a consequence, we may suffer delays in product deliveries or reduced yields. We may experience manufacturing problems in achieving acceptable yields or experience product delivery delays in the future as a result of, among other things, capacity constraints, upgrading or expanding our existing facilities or changing our process technologies, any of which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We may be unable to obtain manufacturing equipment in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost that is necessary for us to remain competitive.
Our operations and ongoing revenue expansion plans depend on our ability to obtain complex and specialized manufacturing equipment and related services from a limited number of suppliers in a market that is characterized from time to time by limited supply and long delivery cycles. During such times, supplier-specific or industry-wide lead times for delivery can be as long as twelve months or more. Further, growing complexities of the most valuable equipment may delay
the timely delivery of such equipment and parts needed to capitalize on time-sensitive and perishable business opportunities. Industry-wide demand increases for this equipment could increase its market price as well as the market price of replacement parts and consumable materials needed to operate the equipment. As a result of demand driven by the semiconductor supply shortage, as well as significant new sources of funding in China as well as potentially other governments (such as Korea, the United States and Europe), the current demand for semiconductor manufacturing equipment and equipment supply constraints are resulting in longer than normal lead times for such equipment. If we are unable to obtain equipment in a timely manner to fulfill our customers’ demand on technology and production capacity, or at a reasonable cost, we may be unable to meet commitments under our contracts with customers, which could expose us to substantial liquidated damages and other claims and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
If we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials in a timely manner and at commercially reasonable prices our revenue and profitability may decline.
Our production operations require that we obtain adequate supplies of raw materials, such as silicon wafers, gases, chemicals and photoresist, on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, many of which are not commodities easily replaced with substitutions. In the past, shortages in the supply of some materials, whether by specific vendors or by the industry generally, have resulted in occasional industry-wide price adjustments and delivery delays. Moreover, major natural disasters, trade barriers and political or economic turmoil occurring within the country of origin of such raw materials may also significantly disrupt the availability of such raw materials or increase their prices. Further, since we procure some of our raw materials from sole-sourced suppliers, there is a risk that our need for such raw materials may not be met or that back-up supplies may not be readily available. In addition, recent trade tensions between the United States and China could result in increased prices or the unavailability of raw materials, including rare earth metals used in our products. Tariffs, export control or other non-tariff barriers, due to global or local economic conditions could also affect material cost and availability.
Certain raw materials and other inputs, such as electricity and water, necessary for our production operations may experience substantial price volatility. Hedging transactions for many of those raw materials and other inputs are not available to us, or are not available on terms we believe are commercially acceptable. Hedges that we enter into with respect to certain inputs, such as electricity, may not be effective. Additionally, once our prices with a customer are negotiated, we are generally unable to revise pricing with that customer until our next regularly scheduled price adjustment. As a result, if market prices for essential components increase, we will often be unable to pass the price increases through to our customers for products purchased under an existing agreement. Consequently, we are exposed to the risks associated with the volatility of prices for these components and our cost of revenue could increase and our gross margins could decrease in the event of price increases. Recently, as a result of demand driven by the semiconductor supply shortage, the costs of raw wafers as well as certain other raw materials are relatively high. Failure to obtain adequate supplies could result in our being unable to meet commitments under our contracts with customers, which could expose us to substantial liquidated damages and other claims, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Failure to adjust our supply chain volume due to changing market conditions or failure to estimate our customers’ demand could adversely affect our sales and could result in additional charges for obsolete or excess inventories or non-cancelable purchase commitments.
We make significant decisions, including determining the levels of business that we will seek and accept, production schedules, personnel needs and other resource requirements, based on our estimates of customer requirements. The possibility of rapid changes in demand for our customers’ products reduces our ability to accurately estimate our customers’ future requirements for our products. On occasion, our customers may require rapid increases in production, which can challenge our resources. We may not have sufficient capacity at any given time to meet our customers’ demands. Conversely, downturns in the semiconductor industry have in the past caused and may in the future cause our customers to significantly reduce the amount of products ordered from us. Because many of our sales, R&D, and manufacturing expenses are relatively fixed, a reduction in customer demand may decrease our gross margins and operating income, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
In addition, we base many of our operating decisions, and enter into purchase commitments, on the basis of anticipated sales, which are highly unpredictable. Some of our purchase commitments are not cancelable, and in some cases we are required to recognize a charge representing the amount of material or capital equipment purchased or ordered that exceeds our actual requirements. For example, we have non-cancelable purchase commitments with vendors and long-term supply agreements with certain of our third-party wafer fabrication partners, under which we are required to purchase a minimum number of wafers per year or face financial penalties. These types of commitments and agreements could reduce our ability to adjust our inventory to address declining market demands. If demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience additional excess and obsolete inventories and be forced to incur additional charges. If sales in future periods fall substantially below our expectations, or if we fail to accurately forecast changes in demand mix, we could again be required to record substantial charges for obsolete or excess inventories or non-cancelable purchase commitments.
Moreover, during a market upturn, we may not be able to purchase sufficient supplies or components to meet increasing product demand, which could prevent us from taking advantage of opportunities and reduce our sales. In addition, a supplier could discontinue a component necessary for our design, extend lead times, limit supply or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors. Our failure to adjust our supply chain volume or estimate our customers’ demands could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Until recently, as a result of current market conditions, we did not typically operate with any significant backlog, except in periods of capacity shortage. The historic lack of significant backlog and the unpredictable length and timing of semiconductor cycles made it more difficult for us to accurately forecast revenue in future periods. Additionally, as we now face more significant backlog, it may not necessarily be indicative of actual sales for any succeeding period. Moreover, our expense levels are based in part on our expectations of future revenue, and we may be unable to fully adjust costs in a timely manner to compensate for revenue shortfalls.
Certain of our debt agreements contain covenants that may constrain the operation of our business, and our failure to comply with these covenants could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Restrictive covenants in our credit facilities may prevent us from pursuing certain transactions or business strategies, including by limiting our ability to, in certain circumstances:
•incur additional indebtedness;
•pay dividends or make distributions;
•acquire assets or make investments outside of the ordinary course of business;
•sell, lease, license, transfer or otherwise dispose of assets;
•enter into transactions with our affiliates;
•create or permit liens;
•guarantee indebtedness; and
•engage in certain extraordinary transactions.
Failure to comply with any of the covenants in our debt agreements, including due to events beyond our control, could result in an event of default. The holders of the defaulted debt could terminate commitments to lend and accelerate amounts outstanding to be due and payable immediately. This could also result in cross-defaults under our other debt instruments, significantly impacting our liquidity and ability to fund our operations. Any of these occurrences could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Aging infrastructure, power grids and risks to the supply of fresh water or natural gas could interrupt production.
The semiconductor fabrication process requires extensive amounts of fresh water and a stable source of electricity and natural gas. In addition, it requires effective facilities to manage wastewater. As our production capabilities and our business grow, our requirements for these factors will grow substantially. Although we have not, to date, experienced any instances of lack of sufficient supplies of water or natural gas or material disruptions in the electricity supply to, or wastewater processing capacity of, any of our fabs beyond temporary or short-term stoppages, we may not have access to sufficient supplies of water, natural gas, electricity or wastewater processing capacity to accommodate our planned growth. Droughts, pipeline interruptions, power interruptions, electricity shortages, geopolitical tensions, or government intervention, particularly in the form of rationing, are factors that could restrict our access to these utilities in the areas in which our fabs are located. If there is an insufficient supply of fresh water, natural gas, electricity or wastewater processing capacity to satisfy our requirements, we may need to limit or delay our production. In addition, a power outage, even of very limited duration, could result in a loss of wafers in production and a deterioration in yield. Any of these occurrences could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We may be subject to the risk of loss due to fire because the materials we use in our manufacturing processes are highly flammable.
We use highly flammable materials such as silane and hydrogen in our manufacturing processes and may therefore be subject to the risk of loss arising from fires. The risk of fire associated with these materials cannot be completely eliminated. We maintain insurance policies to reduce losses caused by fire, including business interruption insurance. However, our insurance coverage is subject to deductibles and self-insured retention and may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses. If any of our fabs were to be damaged or cease operations as a result of a fire, our manufacturing capacity would be reduced, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Our operations are subject to the risks of earthquakes, fires, floods, severe weather incidents and other natural catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as power disruptions, industrial accidents, or terrorism.
Significant natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, severe weather incidents or acts of terrorism occurring in any of our manufacturing or office locations, or where a business partner, such as a customer or supplier, is located, could adversely affect our operational and financial performance. In addition, natural disasters, spills or hazardous exposure incidents, accidents and acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in our business or our suppliers’ or customers’ businesses, national economies or the global economy as a whole, and we may not have insurance coverage for these matters. Our operations, as well as our computing systems, are vulnerable to interference, or interruption from terrorist attacks, natural disasters or pandemics (including COVID-19), the effects of climate change (such as sea level rise, drought, flooding, wildfires, and increased storm severity), power loss, telecommunications failures, criminal fraud or impersonation, inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, or other attempts to harm or access our systems. In the event of a major disruption caused by a natural disaster or any of the foregoing, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our development activities, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security and loss of critical data or personal information, any of which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. We are also at risk of data breaches, as further described below.
The risk of cyberattacks and other data security breaches requires us to incur significant costs to maintain the security of our networks and data, and, in the event of such breaches, may expose us to liability, adversely affect our operations, damage our reputation, and affect our net revenue and profitability, and our efforts to combat breach and misuse of our systems and unauthorized access to our data may not be successful.
We rely on our IT systems and those of our service providers to conduct much of our business operations. Our and our service providers’ IT and computer systems store and transmit customer information, trade secrets, corporate data and personal information, and are otherwise essential to the operation of our production lines, which may make us a target for cyberattacks. In addition, our accreditation as a Trusted Foundry by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (“DMEA”) and our processing of sensitive information may make us an attractive target for attacks, including industrial or nation-state espionage, organized criminals, and terrorist cyberattacks. Hackers may seek to disrupt our operations, blackmail us to regain control of our systems, or spy on us for sensitive information. Further, we depend on our employees and the employees of our service providers to appropriately handle confidential and sensitive data and deploy our IT resources in a safe and secure manner that does not expose our network systems to security breaches or the loss of data. However, there is always a risk that inadvertent disclosure or actions or internal malfeasance by our employees or those of our service providers could result in a loss of data or a breach or interruption of our IT systems.
We are making significant investments in cybersecurity and data security, as well as other efforts to combat breach and misuse of our systems and unauthorized access to our and our customers’ data by third parties. While we seek to continuously review and assess our cybersecurity policies and procedures to ensure their adequacy and effectiveness, all IT and computer systems are vulnerable to attacks, especially via methods that have not been observed yet or quickly evolve. The risk of security breaches may be higher during times of a natural disaster or pandemic (including COVID-19) due to remote working arrangements. We cannot guarantee that our IT and computer systems which control or maintain vital corporate functions, such as our manufacturing operations and enterprise accounting, would be immune to cyberattacks. In the event of a serious cyberattack, our systems may lose important customer information, trade secrets, corporate data or personal information or our production lines may be shut down pending the resolution of such an attack.
In addition, we employ certain third-party service providers for us and our affiliates worldwide with whom we need to share highly sensitive and confidential information to enable them to provide the relevant services. While, to date, we have not been subject to cyberattacks which, individually or in the aggregate, have been material to our operations or financial conditions, some of our third-party service providers have experienced cyberattacks of which we have been made aware.
Despite requiring certain third-party service providers to comply with the confidentiality and security requirements in our service agreements with them, there is no assurance that each of them will strictly fulfill any of their obligations or that they will be successful in preventing further cyberattacks. The on-site network systems and the off-site cloud computing networks such as servers maintained by these service providers and/or their contractors are also subject to risks associated with cyberattacks. While we attempt to take prompt action once we are alerted to a cyberattack against one of our third-party service providers and implement steps designed to mitigate associated risks to our systems and data, we may in the future not be made aware of such events in a timely manner or may be unable to successfully sever network connectivity or otherwise limit the risk to our own systems.
If we or our service providers are not able to timely contain, remediate and resolve the respective issues caused by cyberattacks and data breaches, or ensure the integrity and availability of our systems and data (or data belonging to our
customers or other third parties) or control of our or our service providers’ IT or computer systems, then such attacks, breaches or failures could:
•disrupt the proper functioning of these networks and systems and, therefore, our operations and/or those of certain of our customers;
•result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours, our customers or our employees, including trade secrets, which could be used to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;
•result in litigation and governmental investigation and proceedings that could expose us to civil or criminal liabilities;
•compromise national security and other sensitive government functions;
•require significant management attention and resources to remedy the damages that result;
•result in our incurring significant expenses in implementing remedial and improvement measures to enhance our IT network or computer systems;
•result in costs which exceed our insurance coverage and/or indemnification arrangements;
•subject us to claims for contract breach, damages, credits, penalties or termination; and
•damage our reputation with our customers (including the U.S. government) and the general public.
Further, remediation efforts may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays or cessation of service, unfavorable publicity, damage to our reputation, customer allegations of breach-of-contract, possible litigation, and loss of existing or potential customers that may impede our sales or other critical functions. Additionally, any such attack or unauthorized access may require spending resources on correcting the breach and indemnifying the relevant parties and litigation, regulatory investigations, regulatory proceedings, increased insurance premiums, lost revenue, penalties fines and other potential liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Compliance with applicable data security and data privacy laws and regulations may be costly and, in the case of a breach of applicable law, could harm our reputation.
In the United States, federal and state laws impose limits on, or requirements regarding the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of personal information of individuals, and there has been increased regulation of data privacy and security particularly at the state level, including the California Consumer Privacy Act (effective on January 1, 2020), and the California Privacy Rights Act (expected to take effect on January 1, 2023). Currently, many states are actively considering or enacting similar laws and we operate in many of these jurisdictions. Outside the United States, the European Union and other countries in which we operate also have privacy and data protection laws, regulations and standards.
The interpretation and application of many of these existing or recently enacted laws and regulations are increasingly complex, uncertain and fluid, and could be inconsistent with our existing data management practices. For example, recent developments in Europe have created complexity and uncertainty regarding transfers of personal data from the EEA and the UK to the United States and other jurisdictions. Furthermore, the long-term regulation of data transfers between the EEA and the UK is uncertain, as a relevant adequacy decision enabling such transfers is due to expire. These developments could lead to substantial costs, require significant changes, divert the attention of our technology personnel, adversely affect our margins, increase costs and subject us to additional liabilities. If we are unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the geographical location or segregation of our relevant systems and operations, and could adversely affect our financial results. In addition, the existing EU and UK privacy laws on cookies and e-marketing are also in flux and are likely to be replaced by new regulations, which may introduce more stringent requirements for using cookies and similar technologies for direct marketing and significantly increase fines for non-compliance in-line with the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). Stricter enforcement of such laws could limit the effectiveness of our marketing activities, divert the attention of our technology personnel, increase costs and subject us to additional liabilities.
Inappropriate disclosure of personal and other sensitive data, even if inadvertent, or other actual or perceived violations of or noncompliance with such laws and regulations could expose us to significant administrative, civil or criminal liability as well as reputational harm. For example, a breach of the GDPR could result in fines of up to 20 million euros (“EUR”) under the European GDPR or British pound sterling (“GBP”) 17.5 million under the U.K. GDPR or up to 4% of the annual global revenue of the infringer, whichever is greater, as well as regulatory investigations, reputational damage, orders to cease or change our processing of personal data, enforcement notices and/or assessment notices (for a compulsory audit). Privacy-
related claims or lawsuits initiated by governmental bodies, employees or other third parties, whether meritorious or not, could be time-consuming, result in costly regulatory proceedings, litigation, penalties and fines, or require us to change our business practices, sometimes in expensive ways, or other potential liabilities.
Additionally, a failure to comply with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-171 or the DoD’s cybersecurity requirements, including the Cyber Security Material Model Certificate (“CMMC”), which will require all contractors to receive specific third-party cybersecurity certifications to be eligible for contract awards, could restrict our ability to bid for, be awarded and perform on DoD contracts. The DoD expects that all new contracts will be required to comply with the CMMC by 2026, and initial requests for information and for proposal have already begun. We are in the process of evaluating our readiness and preparing for the CMMC. To the extent we, or our subcontractors or other third parties on whom we rely are unable to achieve certification in advance of contract awards that specify the requirement, we may be unable to bid on contract awards or follow-on awards for existing work with the DoD, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. We will also be required to go through a recertification process every two years. In addition, any obligations that may be imposed on us under the CMMC may be different from or in addition to those otherwise required by applicable laws and regulations, which may cause additional expense for compliance.
Our products may contain defects that could harm our reputation, be costly to correct, delay revenue and expose us to litigation.
Our products are highly complex and sophisticated and, from time to time, may contain defects, errors, hardware failures or other failures that are difficult to detect and correct. Errors, defects and other failures may be found in new solutions, products or services or improvements to existing solutions, products or services after delivery to our customers. If these defects, errors and failures are discovered, we may not be able to successfully correct them in a timely manner or otherwise mitigate or eliminate the impact of the error or failure. The occurrence of errors, defects and other failures in our products could result in the delay or the denial of market acceptance of our products and alleviating such errors, defects and other failures may require us to make significant expenditure of our resources. Our products are often used for critical business processes and as a result, any defect in or failure of our products may cause customers to reconsider renewing their contract with us, cause significant customer dissatisfaction and possibly giving rise to claims for indemnification or other monetary damages. The harm to our reputation resulting from errors, defects and other failures may be material. Any claims for actual or alleged losses to our customers’ businesses may require us to spend significant time and money in litigation or arbitration or to pay significant settlements or damages. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of merit, can be costly and divert management’s attention and resources. Accordingly, any such claim could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Any problem in the semiconductor outsourcing infrastructure could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Many of our customers depend on third parties to provide assembly, testing and other related services. Many of these services are geographically concentrated primarily in Asia. If these customers cannot timely obtain those services on reasonable terms, they may not order foundry products and services from us, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
Any failure to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, service marks, and other forms of intellectual property, contractual restrictions and confidentiality procedures to establish and protect our proprietary rights. However, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. We may not be able to protect our technology, know-how, and/or brand if we are unable to enforce our rights for whatever reason or if we do not detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights. If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, our competitors may gain access to our proprietary technology and develop and commercialize substantially similar products, services or technologies, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We have filed various applications for certain aspects of our intellectual property in the United States and other countries, and we have built a comprehensive patent portfolio of approximately 9,000 worldwide patents. In the future, we may acquire additional patents or patent portfolios, license patents from third parties or agree to license the technology of third parties, which could require significant cash expenditures. Our patents do not cover all of our technologies, systems, products and product components and our competitors or others may design around our patented technologies. Further, when we seek patent protection for a particular technology, there is no assurance that the applications we file will result in
issued patents or that if patents do issue as a result that they will be found to be valid and enforceable or that they will effectively block competitors from creating competing technology. In addition, we may need to license technology from third parties to develop and market new products and we cannot be certain that we could license that technology on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our inability to license this technology could harm our ability to compete and materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Some of our know-how or technology is not patented or patentable and may constitute trade secrets. To protect our trade secrets, we have a policy of requiring our employees, consultants, advisors and other collaborators who contribute to our material intellectual property to enter into confidentiality agreements. We also rely on customary contractual protections with our suppliers and customers, and we implement security measures intended to protect our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information. However, no assurances can be given that those contracts will not be breached. Further, those contracts and arrangements may be ineffective in protecting our intellectual property and may not prevent unauthorized disclosure. See also “—There is a risk that our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information will be stolen, used in an unauthorized manner, or compromised, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.” In addition, third parties may independently develop technologies that may be substantially equivalent or superior to our technology.
There is a risk that our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information will be stolen, used in an unauthorized manner, or compromised, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information may be stolen, used in an unauthorized manner, or compromised through a direct intrusion by private parties or foreign actors, including those affiliated with or controlled by state actors, through cyber intrusions into our computer systems, physical theft through corporate espionage or other means, or through more indirect routes, including by joint venture partners, licensees that do not honor the terms of the license, potential licensees that were ultimately not licensed, or other parties reverse engineering our company’s solutions, products or components. Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
The laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate.
The absence of internationally harmonized intellectual property laws and different enforcement regimes makes it more difficult to ensure consistent protection of our proprietary rights. Our strong international presence may lead to increased exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our manufacturing technologies and proprietary information. Moreover, policing unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets, and intellectual property may be difficult, expensive and time-consuming, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States and where mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be weak. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property rights. Our inability to secure or enforce our intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We have been and may continue to become subject to intellectual property disputes, which are costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.
The semiconductor industry is subject to claims of infringement by patent owners and is characterized by frequent litigation regarding patent rights. From time to time, we receive communications from third parties that allege that our products or technologies infringe their patent or other intellectual property rights and we have had patent infringement lawsuits filed against us claiming that certain of our products, services, or technologies infringe the intellectual property rights of others. We may continue to become subject to such intellectual property disputes in the future. Further, we have entered into licenses, including patent licenses with third parties in settlements of claims or in order to avoid intellectual property disputes and the loss of license rights, including as a result of a termination or expiration of such licenses, may limit our ability to use certain technologies in the future, which could cause us to incur significant costs, prevent us from commercializing certain of our products or otherwise have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, there may be issued patents held by third parties that, if found to be valid and enforceable, could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or products. There also may be pending patent applications of others that may result in issued patents, which could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or products.
In order to protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect those rights. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management. Further, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our
management’s attention and resources, could delay the implementation of our manufacturing technologies, delay introductions of new solutions or injure our reputation and could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Further, many of our agreements with our customers and partners, the terms of which often survive termination or expiration of the applicable agreement, require us to defend such parties against certain intellectual property infringement claims and indemnify them for damages and losses arising from certain intellectual property infringement claims against them, which have in the past resulted, and could in the future result, in increased costs for defending such claims or significant damages if there is an adverse ruling in any such claims. These defense costs and indemnity payments could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. Such customers and partners may also discontinue the use of our products, services, and solutions, as a result of injunctions or otherwise, which could result in loss of revenue and adversely affect our business. We may also have to seek a license for the technology, which may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all, and may significantly increase our operating expenses or may require us to restrict our business activities and limit our ability to develop and deliver our products. As a result, we may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense or which may not be possible, which could negatively affect our business. Moreover, intellectual property indemnities provided to us by our suppliers, when obtainable, may not cover all damages and losses suffered by us and our customers arising from intellectual property infringement claims. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.
Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our technology without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties and we may not be aware of such infringements, misappropriations or violations.
Third parties may bring claims alleging infringement, misappropriation or violation of intellectual property rights. We cannot guarantee that we have not, do not or will not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third-party claims against their use. In addition, some companies may have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. Furthermore, third parties have and may continue to assert infringement claims against us in the future, including the sometimes aggressive and opportunistic actions of non-practicing entities whose business model is to obtain patent-licensing revenue from operating companies such as us. Regardless of the merit of such claims, any claim that we have violated intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third parties, whether or not it results in litigation, is settled out of court or is determined in our favor, could be expensive and time-consuming, and could divert the time and attention of management and technical personnel from our business. The litigation process is subject to inherent uncertainties, and we may not prevail in litigation matters regardless of the merits of our position. In some jurisdictions, plaintiffs can also seek injunctive relief that may limit the operation of our business or prevent the marketing and selling of our services that infringe or allegedly infringe on the plaintiff’s intellectual property rights. If a third party is able to obtain an injunction preventing us from using our technology, accessing third-party intellectual property rights, or if we cannot license or develop alternative technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we could be forced to limit or stop manufacturing activities or sales of our products or cease other business activities related to such intellectual property. To resolve these claims, we may enter into licensing agreements with restrictive terms or significant fees, stop selling our products or services or be required to implement costly or inferior redesigns to the affected products or services, or pay damages to satisfy contractual obligations to others. If we do not resolve these claims in advance of a trial, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in court. These outcomes could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We may be unable to provide technology to our customers if we lose the support of our technology partners.
Enhancing our manufacturing process technologies is critical to our ability to provide services for our customers. We intend to continue to advance our process technologies through internal R&D and alliances with other companies. In addition to our internal R&D focused on developing new and improved semiconductor manufacturing process technologies, our business involves collaboration, including customization and other development of technologies and intellectual property, with and for our customers, vendors and other third parties. We frequently enter into agreements with customers, vendors, equipment suppliers and others that involve customization and other development of technologies and intellectual property. As a result of these agreements, we may be required to limit use of, or refrain from using, certain technologies and intellectual property rights in parts of our business. Determining inventorship and ownership of technologies and intellectual property rights resulting from development activities can be difficult and uncertain.
Disputes may arise with customers, vendors and other third parties regarding ownership of and rights to use and enforce these technologies and intellectual property rights or regarding interpretation of our agreements with these third
parties, and these disputes may result in claims against us or claims that intellectual property rights are not owned by us, are not enforceable, or are invalid. The cost and effort to resolve these types of disputes, or the loss of rights in technologies in intellectual property rights if we lose these types of disputes, could harm our business and financial condition. In addition, our customers, vendors and other third parties may suffer delays, quality issues, or other problems affecting their development activities and ability to supply us with certain technology and intellectual property, which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Further, if we are unable to continue any of our joint development arrangements or other agreements, on mutually beneficial terms, or if we cannot re-evaluate the technological and economic benefits of such relationships with these partners, vendors or suppliers in a timely manner sufficient to support our ongoing technology development, we may be unable to continue providing our customers with leading edge or differentiated mass-producible process technologies and may, as a result, lose important customers, which could have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, businesses and prospects.
Risks Related to Strategic Transactions
We are in the process of divesting our East Fishkill (“EFK”) facility to ON Semiconductor as part of a transaction we entered into in 2019. Failure to successfully manage the divestment of that asset in a timely manner may adversely affect our operations and have a material impact on our cost savings initiatives.
In April 2019, we entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (“ON Semiconductor”) pursuant to which we agreed to transfer substantially all the assets and employees related to our EFK facility in return for $400 million in consideration and $30 million for a technology license. ON Semiconductor paid $100 million upon signing, which included $30 million for the technology license, and an additional $100 million in 2020. We expect the completion of the sale will occur, subject to regulatory approvals, at the end of 2022. The transaction excluded the transfer of our commercial customer arrangements. Since the transaction was entered into, we have transferred a number of technologies from the EFK facility to our other global manufacturing sites to ensure continuous supply to key customers. In order to facilitate these transfers, we and ON Semiconductor have agreed to provide transition services, including reciprocal supply agreements and technology transfer and intellectual property licensing agreements. Pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement, we also agreed to transition approximately 1,000 employees to ON Semiconductor. While we do not anticipate issues related to the transfer and anticipate satisfying all the conditions to closing as set forth in the agreements, the divestment has taken and will continue to require management time and attention and, if for any reason, we fail to complete the transfer on a timely manner or at all or ON Semiconductor fails to fulfill its obligations under the applicable agreements, we may not be able to realize our anticipated benefits, including cost savings, related to the divestment, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We may make strategic acquisitions, and such acquisitions may introduce significant risks and uncertainties, including risks related to integrating the acquired companies, assets or businesses.
We have in the past sought, and may in the future seek, to acquire or invest in businesses, joint ventures and technologies that we believe could complement or expand our capacity, enhance our technology offerings or otherwise offer growth opportunities. These efforts may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable opportunities, whether or not the transactions are completed, and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. These transactions, particularly acquisitions, may be subject to regulatory approvals, including approval from the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”) and approvals from antitrust authorities. With regard to CFIUS, our transactions may be more likely to require CFIUS review given the expansion of CFIUS jurisdiction to critical technologies. Failure to obtain CFIUS approval, as applicable, and other required regulatory approvals may delay or otherwise limit our ability to make strategic transactions. Our integration efforts may periodically expose deficiencies in the controls and procedures relating to cybersecurity and the compliance with data privacy and protection laws, regulations and standards of an acquired company or business that were not identified in our due diligence undertaken prior to consummating the acquisition. Additionally, we may encounter difficulties assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products, personnel or operations of any acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of an acquired company cannot be retained, or we have difficulty preserving the customers of any acquired business. Any such transactions that we are able to complete may not result in the synergies or other benefits we expected to achieve, which could result in substantial impairment charges. These transactions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Political, Regulatory and Legal Risks
Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations expose us to liability and risk of non-compliance, and any such liability or non-compliance could adversely affect our business.
In each jurisdiction in which we operate, our operations are subject to diverse environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that govern, among other things, emissions of pollutants into the air, wastewater discharges, the use and handling of hazardous substances, waste disposal, the investigation and remediation of soil and ground water contamination
and the health and safety of our employees. Semiconductor manufacturing depends on a wide array of process materials, including hazardous materials that are subject to local, state, national or international regulations. These materials, our manufacturing operations and our products and services are subject to diverse environmental, health and safety laws, regulations and regulatory requirements. Sourcing of materials could also present reputational risks if our direct or indirect suppliers are found to be in violation of environmental health and safety regulations, or of ethical or human rights regulations or standards.
Regulatory changes, including restrictions on new or existing materials critical to our manufacturing processes, such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, increased restrictions related to wastewater, air emissions and hazardous substances, or changes to necessary permitting requirements, could cause disruptions to our operations or necessitate additional costs or capital expenditures, such as those associated with identifying and qualifying substitute materials or processes, or with installing additional controls related to wastewater, air emissions or waste management. Regulatory limitations or restrictive covenants at contaminated properties could affect our ability to expand manufacturing operations or capacities and may affect our ability to import materials or equipment.
Industrial accidents or releases, including those associated with storage, use, transportation or disposal of hazardous materials or wastes, could expose us to liabilities or remediation obligations and we may not have insurance coverage for such matters. Non-compliance with environmental, health and safety regulations or associated permit requirements may result in liabilities or monetary penalties. Non-compliance with or public controversy regarding environmental, health and safety matters could result in reputational harm.
Certain environmental laws, including the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and state equivalents, make us potentially liable on a strict, joint and several basis for the investigation and remediation of contamination at, or originating from, facilities that are currently or formerly owned or operated by us and third-party sites to which we send or have sent materials for disposal or materials for recycling, along with related natural resources damages. We could become subject to potential material liabilities for the investigation and cleanup of historic contamination on the U.S. properties where we operate should the currently responsible parties cease their ongoing remediation efforts notwithstanding their contractual obligations to us.
Regulations and customer-imposed requirements in response to climate change could result in additional costs related to changes in process materials, control of process emissions, “carbon taxes” or related fees, and sourcing of energy supplies. Increased frequency of extreme weather events, and chronic conditions like higher temperatures and droughts could cause disruptions to our manufacturing facilities, non-manufacturing operations and supply chain.
We have policies, controls, and procedures designed to help ensure compliance with applicable laws, including as part of our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) initiatives. However, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors, suppliers or agents will not violate such laws or our policies. Violations of these laws and regulations can result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing laws and similar laws and regulations, and non-compliance with such laws, regulations and standards can subject us to administrative, criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, U.S. anti-bribery laws and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing laws and regulations in the countries in which we conduct business. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly to generally prohibit companies, their employees and their third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sectors. In connection with our international sales and business and sales to the public sector, we may engage with business partners and third-party intermediaries to market our products and services and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. In addition, our third-party intermediaries, or other business partners, may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries or other business partners, their employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. Although we have policies and procedures to address compliance with such laws and regulations, there is a risk that our employees and agents will take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible.
Detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations of anti-corruption laws can require a significant diversion of time, resources and attention from senior management. In addition, noncompliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or counter-terrorist financing laws and regulations could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, other civil or criminal
penalties or injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, reputational harm, adverse media coverage and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal proceeding, our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Even in the event of a positive outcome in such an investigation or proceeding, the cost of the investigation or defense could be significant and negatively affect our financial performance.
These laws, regulations and standards are driving the review and updating of many corporate policies and systems, often at significant expense. Until there is a settling of a consistent and stable global approach, our company, with customers and employees around the world, will be exposed to financial risk in complying with these requirements. Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We are subject to governmental export and customs compliance requirements that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate the controls.
Our products and technology are subject to export controls in the jurisdictions where we do business. For example, in the United States, we are subject to the Export Administration Regulations and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”). Under these regulations, certain commodities, software and technology may be exported only with the required export authorizations. Some technology and software that we create or possess is controlled under these regulations, and in certain cases, we are required to maintain controls limiting the access to such technology and software, even among our own employees. Furthermore, our activities are subject to economic sanctions laws and regulations, including U.S. economic sanctions laws and regulations administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control that prohibit or restrict dealings that are within U.S. jurisdiction with, in or involving certain jurisdictions subject to comprehensive U.S. sanctions and certain designated persons and entities. We have corporate policies and procedures in place reasonably designed to ensure compliance with all applicable export control and economic sanctions laws and regulations.
In some cases, our compliance obligations may result in the loss of sales opportunities. In other cases, we may experience delays in our ability to conduct business as we await government authorization. Violations of economic sanctions or export control regulations can result in significant administrative fines or penalties or even criminal prosecution.
We are currently and may in the future become subject to litigation that could result in substantial costs, divert or continue to divert management’s attention and resources, and materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
On June 7, 2021 we filed a complaint in the Supreme Court of New York seeking declaratory judgment that we had not violated certain agreements entered into with International Business Machines Corporation (“IBM”) relating to our acquisition of IBM’s Microelectronics division in 2015, and subsequent development and research activities and sales of our products to IBM. On June 8, 2021, IBM filed a complaint in the Supreme Court of New York asserting intentional breach of contract and fraudulent misrepresentation claims under the same set of agreements. IBM argues that it is entitled to a return of its $1.5 billon payment to the company and at least $1 billion in damages. On September 14, 2021, the Court granted our motion to dismiss IBM’s claims of fraud, unjust enrichment and breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. Our complaint seeking declaratory judgment was dismissed. The case will proceed based on IBM’s breach of contract and promissory estoppel claims. We believe, based on discussions with legal counsel, that we have meritorious defenses against IBM’s claims. We dispute IBM’s claims and intend to vigorously defend against them.
In addition, we are, and may become subject to, legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by our customers in connection with commercial disputes, product liability claims, employment claims made by our current or former employees or claims of infringement raised by intellectual property owners, in connection with the technology used in our manufacturing operations. The risk of such litigation may increase due to use of our products in safety-related systems of other advanced technologies, including automobiles.
Any existing or future disputes, claims or proceedings could result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources. Insurance might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, potentially harming our business, financial position and results of operations. Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. Further, negative publicity arising from disputes, claims or proceedings may damage our reputation and adversely affect the image of our brand and our products. In addition, if any verdict or award is rendered against us, we could be required to pay significant monetary damages, assume other liabilities and even to suspend or terminate related business ventures or projects.
If regular or statutory consultation processes with employee representatives such as works councils fail or are delayed, or if our employees were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
We may be required to consult with our employee representatives, such as works councils, on items such as work hours, restructurings, acquisitions and divestitures. Although we believe that our relations with our employees, employee representatives and works councils are satisfactory, no assurance can be given that we will be able to successfully extend or renegotiate these agreements as they expire from time to time or, in the case of transactions, to conclude potential consultation processes in a timely way. Also, if we fail to extend or renegotiate our labor agreements and social plans, if significant disputes with unions arise, or if our workers engage in a strike or other work stoppage, we could incur higher ongoing labor costs or experience a significant disruption of operations. We have experienced minor work stoppages involving a small number of employees at our Dresden, Germany manufacturing facility. Although those work stoppages did not materially impact production, future work stoppages, if more frequent or on a larger scale, could impact our production and our ability to timely provide products to our customers. Any of the foregoing factors could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Currency and Interest Rate Risks
We are exposed to foreign currency risk, which could materially adversely affect our expenses and profit margins and could result in exchange losses.
The majority of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore, our revenue is not subject to foreign currency risk. However, an increase in the value of the U.S. dollar can increase the real cost to our customers of our products and services in those markets outside of the United States where we sell in U.S. dollars. Conversely, a weakened U.S. dollar can increase the cost of expenses such as our direct labor, raw materials and overhead that are incurred outside of the United States. These operating expenses are denominated in foreign currencies and are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Additionally, this could impact our capital expenditures with foreign suppliers we pay in non-U.S. dollar currencies. We also engage in financing activities in local currencies. Our hedging programs may not be able to effectively offset any, or more than a portion, of the impact of currency exchange rate movements. As a result, unfavorable changes in exchange rates could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
LIBOR and certain other interest rate “benchmarks” may be subject to regulatory guidance and/or reform that could cause interest rates under our current or future debt agreements to perform differently than in the past or cause other unanticipated consequences.
Because a majority of our debt is primarily based on floating interest rate benchmarks (including the London Interbank Offered Rate, or “LIBOR”), fluctuations in interest rates could have a material effect on our business. We currently utilize, and may in the future utilize, derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps or interest rate caps to hedge some of our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, but such instruments may not be effective in reducing our exposure to interest fluctuations, and we may discontinue utilizing them at any time. As a result, we may incur higher interest costs if interest rates increase. These higher interest costs could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and the levels of cash we maintain for working capital.
In addition, LIBOR and certain other interest rate “benchmarks” may be subject to regulatory guidance and/or reform that could cause interest rates under our current or future debt agreements to perform differently than in the past or cause other unanticipated consequences. Since December 31, 2021, LIBOR in Swiss Francs and Euro has permanently ceased to be determined or published, Sterling and Japanese Yen LIBOR has continued, but only for certain tenors and only using a changed methodology resulting in an unrepresentative rate setting and, in U.S. dollars, the one week and two-month LIBOR tenors have permanently ceased to be determined or published. The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that, after June 30, 2023, the overnight and twelve-month tenors of USD LIBOR will permanently cease to be determined or published and, if the remaining USD LIBOR tenors continue, it will be on the basis of a changed methodology resulting in unrepresentative settings. The FCA has prohibited use of the continuing USD LIBOR settings by UK-supervised entities in new regulated financial contracts, instruments and/or investment fund performance measurement, although there are some exceptions. Other regulatory authorities have imposed restrictions on new use of the continuing USD LIBOR settings.
If USD LIBOR ceases to exist or if the methods of calculating USD LIBOR change from their current form before the end of June 2023, interest rates on our current or future debt obligations may be adversely affected.
If a published USD LIBOR rate is unavailable, we may be required to substitute an alternative reference rate, such as a different benchmark interest rate or the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), in lieu of LIBOR. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee has proposed SOFR as its recommended alternative to LIBOR and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing SOFR rates in April 2018. SOFR is intended to be a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight that is collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities. However, because SOFR is a broad U.S. Treasury repo financing rate that represents overnight secured funding transactions, it differs fundamentally from LIBOR. For example, SOFR is a secured overnight rate, while LIBOR is an unsecured rate that represents interbank funding over different
maturities. In addition, SOFR is a backward-looking rate, in that by the time it is published each day, all the transactions on which it is based will have matured, whereas LIBOR is forward-looking. Because of these and other differences, there is no assurance that SOFR will perform in the same way as LIBOR would have performed at any time, and there is no guarantee that it is a comparable substitute for LIBOR. A change from LIBOR to any of the proposed alternative reference rates could result in interest obligations that are more than or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the payments that would have been made on our debt if USD LIBOR were available in its current form. Any of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs. Moreover, the phase-out of LIBOR may adversely affect our assessment of effectiveness or measurement of ineffectiveness for accounting purposes of any interest rate hedging agreements indexed to LIBOR.
Risks Related to Changes in Effective Tax Rate and Accounting Principles
Changes in our effective tax rate or tax liability may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our effective tax rate could increase due to several factors, including, but not limited to:
•changes in the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
•changes in tax laws, tax treaties and regulations or the interpretation of them;
•changes to our assessment about our ability to realize our deferred tax assets that are based on estimates of our future results, the prudence and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies, and the economic and political environments in which we do business;
•the outcome of current and future tax audits, examinations or administrative appeals; and
•limitations or adverse findings regarding our ability to do business in some jurisdictions.
Changes, such as these, that affect our effective tax rate could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our international operations subject us to potentially adverse tax consequences.
We generally conduct our international operations through subsidiaries and report our taxable income in various jurisdictions worldwide based upon our business operations in those jurisdictions. Our intercompany relationships are subject to complex transfer pricing regulations administered by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. The relevant taxing authorities may disagree with our determinations as to the value of assets sold or acquired or income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a disagreement were to occur, and our position were not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest, and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows, and lower overall profitability of our operations. There is also a high level of uncertainty in today’s tax environment stemming from both global initiatives put forth by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, or the “OECD”, and unilateral measures being implemented by various countries due to a historic lack of consensus on these global initiatives. As an example, the OECD has put forth two proposals—Pillar One and Pillar Two—that revise the existing profit allocation and nexus rules (profit allocation based on location of sales versus physical presence) and ensure a minimal level of taxation, respectively. If these proposals are passed, it is likely that we will have to pay higher income taxes in countries where such rules are applicable.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles.
International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”), is subject to interpretation by the IASB and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported results of operations, financial position and cash flows and could affect the reporting of transactions already completed before the announcement of a change.
Risks Related to Our Status as a Controlled Company and Foreign Private Issuer
Our majority shareholder, Mubadala Investment Company PJSC (“Mubadala”) will continue to have substantial control of the business, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control, and otherwise affect the prevailing market price of our ordinary shares.
Mubadala beneficially owns, in the aggregate, approximately 88.3% of our outstanding ordinary shares. See “Item 7. Major Shareholder and Related Party Transactions.” In addition, we have entered into a shareholder’s agreement with Mubadala, which will entitle Mubadala, subject to the level of Mubadala’s beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares, to certain consent rights and director nomination rights. As a result, Mubadala will continue to have significant influence over the management and affairs of our company, as well as the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our
shareholders for approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets and the issuance or redemption of equity interests in certain circumstances. The interests of Mubadala may not always coincide with, and in some cases may conflict with, our interests and the interests of our other shareholders. For instance, Mubadala could attempt to delay or prevent a change in control of our company, even if such change in control would benefit our other shareholders, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their ordinary shares. This concentration of ownership may also affect the prevailing market price of our ordinary shares due to investors’ perceptions that conflicts of interest may exist or arise, and because Mubadala may sell, or investors may perceive that Mubadala is likely to sell, a significant amount of our ordinary shares.
As a foreign private issuer and a controlled company, we are not subject to certain corporate governance rules applicable to U.S. listed companies.
As a foreign private issuer that has listed our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq, we rely on a provision in the Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards that allows us to follow Cayman Islands law with regard to certain aspects of corporate governance. This allows us to follow certain corporate governance practices that differ in significant respects from the corporate governance requirements applicable to U.S. companies listed on the Nasdaq.
For example, we are exempt from Nasdaq regulations that require a listed U.S. company to:
•have a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors;
•require non-management directors to meet on a regular basis without management present;
•have an independent compensation committee;
•have an independent nominating committee; and
•seek shareholder approval for the implementation of certain equity compensation plans and issuances of ordinary shares.
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to follow home country practice in lieu of the above requirements. Our audit, risk and compliance committee is required to comply with the provisions of Rule 10A-3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which is applicable to U.S. companies listed on the Nasdaq. Therefore, we intend to have a fully independent audit, risk and compliance committee within one year from the effective date of our initial public offering registration statement, in accordance with Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act. However, because we are a foreign private issuer, our audit, risk and compliance committee is not subject to additional Nasdaq corporate governance requirements applicable to listed U.S. companies, including the requirements to have a minimum of three members and to affirmatively determine that all members are “independent,” using more stringent criteria than those applicable to us as a foreign private issuer.
We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, are not subject to U.S. proxy rules but are subject to reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. issuer.
We are a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, and although we follow the laws and regulations of the Cayman Islands with regard to such matters, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. public companies, including: (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events. Foreign private issuers are required to file their annual report on Form 20-F within four months after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from the Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of the above, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are not foreign private issuers. This may be the case even though we intend to make interim reports available to our shareholders, copies of which we are required to furnish to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on a Form 6-K, and even though we are required to file reports on Form 6-K disclosing whatever information we have made or are required to make public pursuant to Cayman Islands law or distribute to our shareholders and that is material to us.
We are a Cayman Islands company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than that under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association (the “Memorandum and Articles of Association”), as amended and restated from time to time, the Cayman Islands Companies Act (as amended) (the “Cayman Companies Act”) and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as that from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly defined as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less prescriptive body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fulsome and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.
Our officers and directors presently have, and any of them in the future may have, additional fiduciary or contractual obligations to other entities, and, accordingly, may have conflicts of interest in determining to which entity a particular business opportunity should be presented.
Our directors and officers presently have, and any of them in the future may have, additional fiduciary or contractual obligations to other entities pursuant to which such officer or director is or will be required to present a business opportunity to such entity, subject to his or her fiduciary duties under Cayman Islands law. Accordingly, they may have conflicts of interest in determining to which entity a particular business opportunity should be presented. These conflicts may not be resolved in our favor and a potential business opportunity may be presented to another entity prior to its presentation to us, subject to their fiduciary duties under Cayman Islands law.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law: (i) no individual serving as a director or an officer shall have any duty, except and to the extent expressly assumed by contract, to refrain from engaging directly or indirectly in the same or similar business activities or lines of business as us; (ii) we renounce any interest or expectancy in, or in being offered an opportunity to participate in, any potential transaction or matter which may be a corporate opportunity for any director or officer, on the one hand, and us, on the other; and (iii) no individual serving as a director or an officer shall have a duty to communicate or offer any such corporate opportunity to us, nor shall such individuals be liable to us for a breach of fiduciary duty solely by reason of the fact that such party pursues or acquires such corporate opportunity for himself or herself, directs such corporate opportunity to another person, or does not communicate information regarding such corporate opportunity to us.
For a complete discussion of our executive officers’ and directors’ business affiliations and the potential conflicts of interest that you should be aware of, please see “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees” and “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions.”
The Cayman Islands Economic Substance Act may affect our operations.
The Cayman Islands has recently enacted the International Tax Co-operation (Economic Substance) Act, or the Cayman Economic Substance Act. The Cayman Economic Substance Act generally requires legal entities domiciled or registered in the Cayman Islands to have demonstrable substance in the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Economic Substance Act was introduced by the Cayman Islands to ensure that it meets its commitments to the European Union, as well as its obligations under the OECD’s global Base Erosion and Profit Shifting initiatives. We are required to comply with the Cayman Economic Substance Act. As we are a Cayman Islands company, compliance obligations include filing annual notifications for us, which need to state whether we are carrying out any relevant activities and, if so, whether we have satisfied economic substance tests to the extent required under the Cayman Economic Substance Act. As it is a relatively new regime, it is anticipated that the Cayman Economic Substance Act will evolve and be subject to further clarification and amendments. We may need to allocate additional resources to keep updated with these developments, and may have to make changes to our operations in order to comply with all requirements under the Cayman Economic Substance Act. Failure to satisfy these requirements may subject us to penalties under the Cayman Economic Substance Act. The Cayman Islands Tax Information Authority shall impose a penalty of CI$10,000 (or US$12,500) on a relevant entity for failing to satisfy the economic substance test or CI$100,000 (or US$125,000) if it is not satisfied in the subsequent financial year after the initial notice of failure. Following failure after two consecutive years the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands may make an order requiring the relevant entity to take specified action to satisfy the economic substance test or ordering it that it is defunct or be struck off. As the Cayman Islands Economic Substance Act is relatively new legislation, there is some uncertainty as to whether the Company met the requirements of the Economic Substance Act for the 2019 and 2020
reporting periods. However, the Company has not been notified by the Cayman Islands Tax Information Authority of any such failure or applicable penalties.
Risks Related to Operating as a Public Company
We are incurring increased costs and expenses as a result of operating as a public company and our management is required to devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, we are incurring greater legal, accounting and other expenses than we incurred as a private company. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), and the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq, which impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. These requirements increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs and make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.
We are continuing to evaluate these rules and regulations and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.
We are also required to comply with auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of SOX. In that regard, we are working to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.
If we fail to establish and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, our operating results and our ability to operate our business could be harmed.
Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be re-evaluated frequently. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In connection with our initial public offering, we have begun the process of documenting, reviewing and improving our internal controls and procedures for compliance with Section 404 of SOX, which will require annual management assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Implementing any appropriate changes to our internal controls may distract our officers and employees, entail substantial costs to modify our existing processes and take significant time to complete. These changes may not, however, be effective in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and harm our business. In addition, investors’ perceptions that our internal controls are inadequate or that we are unable to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis may harm the trading price of our ordinary shares and make it more difficult for us to effectively market and sell our service to new and existing customers.
Risks Related to our Ordinary Shares
Future sales or distributions of our shares by Mubadala could depress the price of our ordinary shares.
Sales by Mubadala in the public market or other distributions of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares, or the filing of a registration statement relating to a substantial amount of our ordinary shares, could depress our ordinary share price. In addition, Mubadala has the right, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering its shares or to include its shares in other registration statements that we may file. By exercising its registration rights and selling a large number of shares, Mubadala could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline.
We do not expect to declare or pay any dividends on our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. Consequently, investors must rely on sales of their shares of our ordinary shares after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. Investors seeking dividends should not purchase shares of our ordinary shares. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and subject to, among other things, our compliance with applicable law, and depending on, among other things, our business prospects, financial condition, results of operations, cash requirements and availability, debt repayment obligations, capital expenditure needs, the terms of any preferred equity securities we may issue in the future, covenants in the agreements governing our current
and future indebtedness, other contractual restrictions, industry trends and any other factors or considerations our board of directors may regard as relevant. See “Item 8. Financial Information—Dividends and Dividend Policy.”
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Cayman Islands law may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our shareholders, which could depress the price of our ordinary shares and prevent attempts by our shareholders to replace or remove our current management.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association contain provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that shareholders may consider to be in their best interests. Our board of directors is divided into three classes with staggered, three-year terms. Our board of directors has the ability to designate the terms of and issue preferred shares without shareholder approval. We are also subject to certain provisions under Cayman Islands law that could delay or prevent a change of control. Together these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our ordinary shares.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association provide that the courts of the Cayman Islands will be the exclusive forum for certain disputes between us and our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for complaints against us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the courts of the Cayman Islands will, to the fullest extent permitted by the law, have exclusive jurisdiction over any claim or dispute arising out of or in connection with our Memorandum and Articles of Association or otherwise related in any way to each shareholder’s shareholding in us, including but not limited to (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of any fiduciary or other duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our shareholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Cayman Companies Act or our Memorandum and Articles of Association, and (iv) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the “Internal Affairs Doctrine” (as such concept is recognized under the laws of the United States) and that each shareholder irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the Cayman Islands over all such claims or disputes. Our Memorandum and Articles of Association will provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause or causes of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), or Exchange Act, including all causes of action asserted against any defendant named in such complaint.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association also provide that, without prejudice to any other rights or remedies that we may have, each of our shareholders acknowledges that damages alone would not be an adequate remedy for any breach of the selection of the courts of the Cayman Islands as exclusive forum and that accordingly we shall be entitled, without proof of special damages, to the remedies of injunction, specific performance or other equitable relief for any threatened or actual breach of the selection of the courts of the Cayman Islands as exclusive forum.
This choice of forum provision may increase a shareholder’s cost and limit the shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any of our shares or other securities, whether by transfer, sale, operation of law or otherwise, shall be deemed to have notice of and have irrevocably agreed and consented to these provisions. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provisions, and the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings. It is possible that a court could find this type of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable, and if a court were to find this provision in our Memorandum and Articles of Association to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could have adverse effect on our business and financial performance.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association provide for indemnification of officers and directors at our expense, which may result in a major cost to us and hurt the interests of our shareholders because corporate resources may be expended for the benefit of officers and/or directors.
Our Memorandum and Articles of Association and applicable law of the Cayman Islands provide for the indemnification of our directors and officers, under certain circumstances, against any liability, action, proceeding, claim, demand, costs, damages or expenses, including legal expenses, whatsoever which they or any of them may incur as a result of any act or failure to act in carrying out their functions in connection with our company, other than such liability (if any) that they may incur by reason of their own actual fraud, dishonesty, willful neglect or willful default. We will also bear the expenses of such litigation for any of our directors or officers, upon such person’s undertaking to repay any amounts paid, advanced, or reimbursed by us if it is ultimately determined that any such person shall not have been entitled to indemnification. This indemnification policy could result in substantial expenditures by us that we will be unable to recoup.
We have been advised that, in the opinion of the SEC, indemnification for liabilities arising under federal securities laws is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act, and is, therefore, unenforceable.
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A. History and Development of the Company
We were established in 2009 when a subsidiary of Mubadala acquired the manufacturing operations of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (“AMD”) in Dresden, Germany, and their fab project site in Malta, New York. Since our inception, we have grown through a combination of acquisitions, greenfield expansions and strategic partnerships. In 2010, we combined with Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing, the third-largest foundry by revenue at the time, forming the basis for our Singapore manufacturing hub. In 2015, we acquired IBM’s Microelectronics division with manufacturing facilities in New York and Vermont, adding distinctive technology capabilities, including more than 2,000 IBM engineers. By 2017, we had successfully ramped our most advanced manufacturing site in Malta, New York. Through our organic and strategic growth initiatives, we increased manufacturing capacity and now have a global footprint with five manufacturing sites on three continents with approximately 14,600 employees and approximately 9,000 worldwide patents. In 2021, we shipped approximately 2.4 million 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers. With this level of market presence and capability, our technologies are found across most semiconductor end markets in devices used on a daily basis.
Beginning in 2018, we embarked on a new strategy to significantly reposition our business to better align with our customers’ needs, drive margin expansion and accelerate value creation for our stakeholders. Today, we focus on and are growing sales of foundry solutions for the pervasive semiconductor market, where we are trusted to reliably innovate and deliver premium performance, functionality, efficiency and quality, rather than focusing merely on transistor density and processing speed.
Key elements of our strategy include:
•Focus on feature-rich solutions. In August 2018, we shifted our focus to address the pervasive foundry market opportunity and the growing demand for specialized process technologies in emerging high-growth markets. Examples of feature-rich solution include embedded Non-volatile memory (“eNVM”) and high voltage.
•Market-based customer engagement strategy. In order to better address and capture the pervasive semiconductor foundry market opportunity, we restructured our go-to-market organizations to better align with the growing opportunities in Smart Mobile Devices, Home and Industrial IoT, Communications Infrastructure & Datacenter, Automotive and Personal Computing. We supplemented our existing workforce with talented executives holding deep domain expertise in these growing markets.
•Optimized portfolio. We took a number of steps to streamline and optimize our business and manufacturing footprint to improve our bottom line and return on capital. In 2019, we divested three assets that were not aligned with our strategic priorities.
•Resized and refocused cost structure. We have realigned our engineering, sales and marketing organizations toward higher-margin, higher-return products and opportunities to drive our improved bottom line.
•Disciplined, capital-efficient expansion strategy. Since our repositioning, we have focused on a capital-efficient expansion strategy that is based on long-term demand certainty and partnerships with our customers. In addition, by repositioning to focus on differentiated technologies, we have been able to efficiently add features to our existing platforms while significantly reducing overall capital expenditures. Additionally, this strategy provides us with the opportunity to pursue highly accretive investments to meet market demand.
For a description of our principal capital expenditures in the last three fiscal years and a discussion of our acquisitions and dispositions, please see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”
Our legal and commercial name is GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc. We are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with limited liability on October 7, 2008. We have appointed Corporation Service Company as our agent to receive service of process with respect to any action brought against us in the United States under the federal securities laws of the United States or of any state in the United States. The address of Corporation Service Company is 251 Little Falls Drive, Wilmington, DE 19808. Our principal executive offices are located at 400 Stonebreak Road Extension, Malta, New York 12020, United States, and our telephone number is (518) 305-9013.
Our website address is www.gf.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this Annual Report. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.
The GF design logo, “GF” and our other registered or common law trademarks, service marks, or trade names appearing in this Annual Report are the property of GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc. Other trade names, trademarks and service marks used in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners.
B. Business Overview
We are one of the world’s leading semiconductor foundries. We manufacture complex, feature-rich ICs that enable billions of electronic devices that are pervasive throughout nearly every sector of the global economy. With our specialized foundry manufacturing processes, a library consisting of thousands of qualified circuit-building block designs (known as IP titles or IP blocks), and differentiated transistor and device technology, we serve a broad range of customers, including the global leaders in IC design, and provide optimized solutions for the function, performance and power requirements of critical applications driving key secular growth end markets. As the only scaled pure-play foundry with a global footprint that is not based in China or Taiwan, we help customers mitigate geopolitical risk and provide greater supply chain certainty.
We provide differentiated foundry solutions that enable the era for data-centric, connected, intelligent and secure technologies. We are redefining the foundry model with feature-rich solutions that enable our customers to develop innovative products for an increasingly wide variety of applications across broad and pervasive markets. We unlock value for our customers by helping drive technology in multiple dimensions, making their products more intelligent and intuitive, more connected and secure, and more powerful and energy-efficient. Our objective is to be the global leader in feature-rich semiconductor manufacturing—the foundry of choice for the pervasive semiconductor market.
Since our founding in 2009, we have invested over $23 billion in our company to build a global manufacturing footprint with multiple state-of-the-art facilities across three continents, offering customers the flexibility and security their supply chains require. As semiconductor technologies become more complex with advanced integration requirements, we are also able to offer comprehensive, state-of-the-art design solutions and services that provide our customers with a high-quality, cost-effective and faster path to market. We continue to add new ecosystem partners spanning IP, electronic design automation, outsourced assembly and test and design services. Building on an existing library of more than 4,400 IP titles, we currently have more than 970 IP titles in active development across 27 process nodes and 34 IP partners.
We focus on feature-rich devices that include digital, analog, mixed-signal, radio frequency (“RF”), ultra-low power and embedded memory solutions that connect, secure and process data, and efficiently power the digital world around us. As the semiconductor and technology industries become more complex, we expect to become an even more vital partner to fabless semiconductor design companies, IDMs and original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), bringing their designs to life in physical hardware. Our core technology portfolio includes a range of differentiated technology platforms, including our industry-leading RF SOI solutions, advanced high-performance Fin Field-Effect Transistor (“FinFET”), feature-rich Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (“CMOS”), our proprietary FDXTM, high-performance Silicon Germanium (“SiGe”) products and SiPh, all of which can be purposely engineered, innovated and designed for a broad set of demanding applications. Customers depend on us for feature-rich solutions based on these differentiated technologies in a growing number of applications that require low power, real-time connectivity and on-board intelligence.
The combination of our highly-differentiated technology and our scaled manufacturing footprint enables us to attract a large share of single-sourced products and long-term supply agreements, providing a high degree of revenue visibility and significant operating leverage, resulting in improved financial performance and bottom line growth. As of December 31, 2021, the aggregate lifetime revenue commitment reflected by these agreements amounted to more than $21 billion, including more than $10 billion during the period from 2022 through 2023 and more than $3.0 billion in advanced payments and capacity reservation fees. These agreements include binding, multi-year, reciprocal annual (and, in some cases, quarterly) minimum purchase and supply commitments with wafer pricing and associated mechanics outlined for the contract term. Through an intense focus on collaboration, we have built deep strategic partnerships with a broad base of more than 250 customers as of December 31, 2021, many of whom are the global leaders in their field. For the year 2021, our top ten customers, based on wafer shipment volume, included some of the largest semiconductor companies in the world: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (“AMD”), Cirrus Logic, Inc. (“Cirrus Logic”), Infineon Technologies AG (“Infineon”), MediaTek Inc. (“MediaTek”), NXP Semiconductors N.V. (“NXP”), pSemi Corporation (“pSemi”), Qorvo, Inc. (“Qorvo”), Qualcomm Inc. (“Qualcomm”), Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”), and Skyworks Solutions, Inc. (“Skyworks”). A key measure of our position as a strategic partner to our customers is the mix of our wafer shipment volume attributable to single-sourced business, which represented approximately 62% of wafer shipment volume in 2021, up from 61% in 2020. We define single-sourced products as those that we believe can only be manufactured with our technology and cannot be manufactured elsewhere without significant customer redesigns.
In addition to our highly-differentiated technology platforms, our capital-efficient, scaled manufacturing footprint gives us the flexibility and agility to meet the dynamic needs of our customers around the globe, help them mitigate geopolitical risk and provide greater supply chain certainty. We are also one of the most advanced accredited foundry providers to the U.S. DoD and have the ability to extend this high-assurance model to serve commercial customers and to enhance supply chain security and resilience at a time when they are becoming more critical to national and economic security. Since foundry production is concentrated in China and Taiwan, we believe our global manufacturing footprint is a key differentiator that makes us the ideal partner for local and regional government stakeholders at a time when many regions, in particular the United States and Europe, are contemplating significant funding to secure and grow domestic semiconductor manufacturing capabilities.
We currently operate five manufacturing sites in the following locations: Dresden, Germany; Singapore; Malta, New York; Burlington, Vermont; and East Fishkill, New York. Subsequent to our transfer of our EFK facility, we will have four world-class manufacturing sites on three continents, providing the scale, technology differentiation and geographic diversification that we believe are critically important to our customers’ success, with total 300mm equivalent baseline capacity in 2021 of approximately 2,228 kilo wafers per annum (“kwpa”). See Note 32 to our Annual Consolidated Financial Statements for our revenue and non-current assets by geography.
We offer a wide range of feature-rich solutions that can address the needs of mission-critical applications in Smart Mobile Devices, Home and Industrial IoT, Communications Infrastructure & Datacenter, Automotive and Personal Computing. To solve our customers’ most complex challenges, we have developed a broad range of sophisticated technology platforms that leverage our extensive patent portfolio and deep technical expertise in digital, analog, mixed-signal, RF and embedded memory.
We devote the majority of our R&D efforts to our six primary differentiated technology platforms:
•RF SOI: Our industry-leading RF SOI technologies are utilized in high-growth, high-volume wireless and Wi-Fi markets and are optimized for low power, low noise and low latency/high frequency applications that enable longer battery life for mobile applications and high cellular signal quality. Our RF SOI technologies are found in almost all cellular handsets from major manufacturers and in cellular ground station transceivers.
•FinFET: Our FinFET process technology is purpose-built for high-performance, power-efficient Systems-on-a-Chip (“SoCs”) in demanding, high-volume applications. Advanced features such as RF, automotive, ultra-low power memory and logic provide a best-in-class (12 to 16 nanometer (“nm”)) combination of performance, power and area, and are well-suited for compute and AI, mobile/consumer and automotive processors, high-end IoT applications, high performance transceivers and wired/wireless networking applications.
•Feature-Rich CMOS: Our CMOS platforms combined with foundational and complex IP and design enablement offer mixed-technology solutions on volume production-proven processes and are well-suited for a wide variety of applications. Technology features include Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (“BCD”) for power management, high-voltage triple-gate oxide for display drivers, and embedded non-volatile memory for micro-controllers.
•FDXTM: Our proprietary FDXTM process technology platform is especially well-suited for efficient single-chip integration of digital and analog signals delivering cost-effective performance for connected and low-power embedded applications. A full range of features, such as Ultra-Low Power (“ULP”), Ultra-Low Leakage (“ULL”), RF and mmWave, embedded Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (“MRAM”) and automotive, makes our FDXTM process technology platform especially well-matched for IoT/wireless, 5G (including mmWave), automotive radar, and satellite communications applications.
•SiGe: Our SiGe Bipolar CMOS (“BiCMOS”) technologies are uniquely optimized for either power amplifier applications or very-high-frequency applications for optical and wireless networking, satellite communications and communications infrastructure. Our SiGe technologies are performance-competitive with more costly compound semiconductor technologies while taking full advantage of being integrated with conventional Silicon CMOS (“Si CMOS”).
•SiPh: Our SiPh platforms address the increasing need for data centers to handle ever higher data rates and volumes with greater power efficiency, as conventional copper wire connections are becoming prohibitive from a power consumption perspective. Our SiPh platforms integrate photonics components with CMOS logic and RF to enable a fully integrated, monolithic electrical and optical computing and communications engine. Our SiPh technologies are also being extended to applications such as Light Detection and Ranging (“LiDAR”), quantum computing and consumer optical networks.
Recent Industry and Market Dynamics
The Global Semiconductor Supply Shortage
While technology megatrends have been driving increased semiconductor demand, the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated demand trends already underway, including remote work, learning and medicine, driving sustainable demand for electronic devices such as networking and infrastructure to maintain a distributed environment. As a result, demand has outstripped supply across most of the semiconductor industry. Meanwhile, other industries, such as the automotive sector, which were initially hard-hit by the pandemic, began to halt new purchases and depleted existing inventories of semiconductor chips. As some parts of the world have started to re-open, these impacted sectors have seen significant increases in new demand, which, when coupled with underlying megatrends not related to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the electrification of vehicles, have resulted in a significant imbalance between demand and supply. Although the supply-demand imbalance is expected to improve over the medium-term, the semiconductor industry will require a significant increase in investment to keep up with demand.
Government Incentives to Secure Supply
Against this backdrop, governments have been proposing bold new incentives to fund and secure their local semiconductor manufacturing industries. The United States Congress authorized the CHIPS Act, which, if funded, as proposed in legislation pending in Congress, will provide for $52 billion in funding to the domestic semiconductor industry, with approximately two-thirds directed toward semiconductor manufacturing. However, the timing of when we may receive funding under the CHIPS Act is difficult to predict. The European Union recently proposed the European Chips Act, which is intended to provide significant funding to strengthen the EU’s semiconductor industry. These programs, and similar programs under consideration, are designed to bring back share in the semiconductor industry to the United States and Europe by encouraging manufacturers such as GF to increase their local capacities in these regions.
Similarly, we believe that foundry customers are increasingly seeking to diversify and secure their semiconductor supply chains, and are looking for foundry partners with manufacturing footprints in Europe, the United States and Asia, outside of China and Taiwan. Fabless companies and IDMs increasingly view their foundry relations as highly strategic and are looking to secure long-term capacity contracts by paying to access capacity expansions at their foundry partners. This trend has the potential to help balance the geographical distribution of manufacturing and drive increased long-term visibility and profitability of the foundry industry.
Semiconductors are the core building blocks of electronic devices and systems, including those used in mobile devices, automobiles, consumer electronics, wearables, smart home devices, 5G wireless infrastructure, robotics, PCs, cloud computing, data networking and others. Historically, semiconductor innovation was driven by a few select compute-centric applications—initially PCs and later the internet and mobile phones. Mobile devices have evolved from a convenient communication appliance to a feature-rich, always-connected device, enabling users to do and control nearly everything in their lives. This has driven significant growth in semiconductor demand.
Another significant driver of semiconductor demand has been, and we believe will continue to be, the tremendous growth in the deployment of intelligent software which is increasingly transforming a wide variety of business functions across all sectors. Semiconductors enable the functionality that software delivers. With wide-scale adoption of mobile devices and software solutions, society has grown to expect high-speed connectivity, convenience and security in all applications, providing a catalyst for increased semiconductor content in nearly every industry. These trends were accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which emphasized the criticality of connectivity to allow the world to continue to work, communicate, educate, and deliver goods and services. We believe that accelerated adoption of technologies such as video conferencing, telemedicine, e-education and e-commerce will serve to drive increased requirements for these technologies going forward.
Semiconductors are enabling the transformation of other sectors of the economy as well. In particular, autonomous driving applications are driving a sharp increase in semiconductor sensors. Semiconductors are increasingly integral to the performance, safety and comfort of vehicles, and we believe the continued electrification of automobiles will only further accelerate this trend.
Semiconductors have become mission-critical to the functionality, safety, transformation and success of many industries in addition to the automotive industry. As a result, the diversification of semiconductor demand across a wide range of industries has made the sector more foundational and central to the broader economy and in turn less vulnerable to cyclicality.
Technology megatrends including IoT, 5G, cloud, artificial intelligence (“AI”) and next-generation automotive are reshaping the global economy and driving a new golden age for semiconductors. Semiconductors have become ubiquitous, powering a broad range of applications from consumer devices to enterprise and industrial applications. Semiconductor
innovation is essential to the growth and development of many parts of the technology ecosystem. This includes the software and AI revolution and data collection, transmission and processing at an unprecedented scale, as well as increasing use of advanced driver-assistance systems (“ADAS”) and electrification of automobiles. Semiconductor innovation is also essential for many industrial applications. As the manufacturing backbone of the semiconductor industry, foundries are the bedrock of the global technology ecosystem, and, by extension, the world economy. Foundries such as GF drive innovation by providing advances in process technologies, materials science and IC design IP within the global supply chain to enable customers to develop ICs, accelerate time-to-market and offer value-added services.
Impact of COVID-19
All of our manufacturing facilities continue to remain open and are operating at normal production levels. We have been classified as an essential business in the United States, Germany and Singapore and we expect our facilities to remain open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Our manufacturing sites are limited to essential personnel only and we are able to maintain appropriate staffing levels to support production. We are also taking all appropriate measures to protect our workforce and community.
At the beginning of the pandemic, we increased the frequency of monitoring our cash flows and working capital, and to date we have seen no impacts. As an essential business, we stayed open throughout 2021 and have continued to do so based on what we believe to be effective measures to maintain a safe work environment, while scaling production to meet increasing demand.
In March 2020, we drew down a $235 million revolving credit facility as a safeguard measure in case of pressure on the banking system, which was fully paid back in July 2020. Our suppliers continue to support our business without material impacts from the pandemic. We are also evaluating and participating in government initiatives as appropriate. To date, we have benefited from approximately $29 million from payroll tax deferrals in the United States and approximately $26 million in grants from the government of Singapore.
Our customers have not signaled material demand shifts at this point and non-cancellable revenue coverage is within the normal historical range. We continue to closely monitor the business environment for changes and are prepared to adjust capital and operational spending as appropriate.
We have several distinct advantages that differentiate us from our peers:
•Scaled manufacturing capabilities. In 2021, we shipped approximately 2.4 million 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers. We believe that our scaled global manufacturing footprint enables our customers to leverage the security of our fabs and ensure a trusted supply of critical semiconductors.
•Differentiated technology platforms and ecosystem. We deliver highly-differentiated solutions to meet customer demand for superior performance, lower power consumption and better thermal efficiency for mission-critical applications across IoT, 5G, cloud, AI, next-generation automotive and other secular growth markets that are driving the economy of the future.
•Diversified and secure geographic footprint. Our scaled global manufacturing footprint helps mitigate geopolitical, natural disaster and competitive risks. We are the only U.S.-based scaled semiconductor foundry with a global footprint. We believe that this geographic diversification is critical to our customers as well as governments around the world as they look to secure semiconductor supply. Furthermore, a significant number of our technology platforms are qualified across our manufacturing footprint, providing our customers with a geographically diverse one-stop supply chain solution.
•Market-centric solutions driving deep customer relationships. We are pioneering a new sustainable foundry relationship with fabless companies, IDMs and OEMs by partnering with customers to redefine the supply chain and economics for the entire value chain. The insights we gain through our market-centric approach enable us to focus on and invest in the markets and applications in which we believe we can achieve a clear leadership position.
•Capital-efficient model. Our focus on the pervasive semiconductor market results in lower capital requirements compared to foundries that focus on processor-centric compute semiconductors and are therefore obligated to invest significant capital to transition from node to node. Additionally, as the only scaled pure-play foundry with existing manufacturing capacity in the United States and Europe, we are well-positioned to benefit from government support, as governments around the world implement or contemplate large aid packages to encourage manufacturers such as us to increase their local capacities in these regions.
•World-class team and focus on sustainability. We have a highly technically proficient, talented and experienced management team of executive officers and key employees with average industry experience of 20 years. We are dedicated to ethical and responsible business practices, the personal and social well-being of our diverse and highly-skilled employee base, and supply chain and environmental stewardship. As of December 31, 2021, we
employed approximately 14,600 employees, and approximately 65% of our employees were engineers or technicians.
Our Growth Strategies
Key elements of our growth strategies include:
•Deepen relationships with key customers. We operate a customer-focused partnership model in which we work closely with our customers to better understand their requirements in order to invest in and develop tailored solutions to suit their specific needs. We intend to expand our customer base and increase market share by leveraging our core IP, comprehensive portfolio, scale and flexibility to redefine the fabless-foundry model.
•Expand portfolio of differentiated, feature-rich technologies. We believe that maintaining and enhancing our leadership position in differentiated technologies is critical to attracting and retaining customers, which increasingly rely on specific silicon features to differentiate their products. We will continue to invest in R&D across our six key technology platforms, which we believe will lead to continued innovation and growth within our addressable market for the foreseeable future.
•Disciplined capacity expansion. We believe that we have a capital-efficient model that allows us to expand capacity in a disciplined and economically attractive manner. Our focus on the pervasive semiconductor market requires lower capital intensity than that of the compute-focused foundries to drive revenue growth.
•Strengthen government partnerships. We intend to continue expanding our existing footprint by building on the strength of our public/private investment partnerships. As regions around the world work to establish domestic semiconductor supply, we believe governmental funding to secure local manufacturing will continue.
•Continued operational excellence. Through intensive management focus on operational efficiency, we will continue to implement efficiency measures aimed at expanding margins, improving our bottom line, and generating higher returns on investment. We expect our business model to provide significant bottom line benefits as revenue scales at each of our existing locations.
One of the most important raw materials used in our production processes is silicon wafers, which is the basic raw material from which integrated circuits are made. In recent years, the silicon substrate market has experienced price volatility and supply shortages. The principal suppliers for our wafers are Soitec, GlobalWafers Singapore Pte. Ltd. (“GlobalWafers”), SK Siltron, Inc., Siltronic AG, Sumco Corporation and Shin-Etsu Handotai (“S.E.H.”). In order to secure a reliable and flexible supply of high-quality wafers, we have entered into multiple long-term agreements with the majority of our principal suppliers, the largest of which is Soitec. We have entered into multiple long-term agreements with Soitec across a wide spectrum of SOI products. See also “Item 3. Risk Factors—We rely on a complex silicon supply chain and breakdowns in that chain could affect our ability to produce our products and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.”
Research and Development
We have a strong heritage of innovation, stemming from our roots at AMD, Chartered Semiconductor and IBM, and have built a comprehensive technology portfolio supported by approximately 9,000 worldwide patents. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 1,400 employees dedicated to R&D. We have a strong commitment to R&D, and, since our strategic repositioning in 2018, have been able to invest more efficiently, focusing our R&D efforts primarily on delivering a comprehensive and expanded portfolio of highly-differentiated, feature-rich solutions for our customers, including RF, FinFET, feature-rich CMOS, FDXTM, SiGe and SiPh. Our investments cover a broad range of innovation vectors, including materials and substrates, architecture, integration, services, including packaging, and the development of our ecosystem. We have developed and continue to develop resources that allow our customers to develop innovative products to fuel the global economy. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, we spent $583 million, $476 million and $478 million, respectively, on R&D, which represented 10%, 10% and 7% of our net revenue in each respective year. The sequential decline in R&D spending was driven primarily by the sale of our ASIC business.
We rely on IP rights, particularly patents and trade secrets, as well as contractual arrangements, to protect our core process and design enablement technologies and provide our customers with protected technology to enable their mission-critical offerings. On average, we file hundreds of new patent applications annually, and approximately 90% of our filed patent applications have successfully been issued as patents (based on U.S. patent applications filed between 2016 and 2020), which reflects the innovation of our engineers. Following our 2018 pivot to focus on differentiated technologies, our recent patent applications have closely tracked our areas of focus, including RF, FDXTM, SiGe, and SiPh. We file our patent applications in the United States and in key countries such as Taiwan, Korea, China and Germany based on the location of
other semiconductor manufacturers or major markets. In addition to patents invented by our engineers, we have also acquired thousands of patents from other leading semiconductor manufacturers, including AMD, Chartered Semiconductor and IBM. We periodically conduct in-depth reviews of our patents and the industry’s manufacturing technologies, and we cull patents having limited or no value, yielding both savings in patent office maintenance fees and a strong, active patent portfolio. As of December 31, 2021, we held approximately 9,000 worldwide patents.
Over the years, we have used our patent portfolio to successfully fend off operating companies seeking to extract patent license fees from us. Additionally, in 2019, we filed patent infringement lawsuits against TSMC in the U.S. International Trade Commission and district courts in the United States and Germany. The case was quickly settled with a patent cross-license. We have also entered into patent cross-licenses with a number of other leading advanced semiconductor companies, including AMD, Samsung and IBM. These cross-licenses provide us with valuable freedom of operation under patents owned or subsequently divested by such companies. As is the case with many companies in the semiconductor industry, we have from time to time received communications from third parties, in particular, so-called non-practicing entities, asserting patents that allegedly cover certain of our technologies, and we expect to receive similar communications in the future. Some of the patents that others have chosen to assert against us are not valid based on pre-existing prior art, and we have successfully defended ourselves using inter partes review (“IPR”) and other procedures in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Regardless of the validity or the successful assertion of such claims, we could incur significant costs and devote significant management resources to the defense of these claims, which could seriously harm our company. Additionally, many of our agreements with our customers and partners require us to defend such parties against certain IP infringement claims and indemnify them for damages and losses arising from certain intellectual property infringement claims against them. See “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Intellectual Property—We have been and may continue to become subject to intellectual property disputes, which are costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.”
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Initiatives
We are dedicated to ethical and responsible business practices, the personal and social well-being of our employees, and supply chain and environmental stewardship. ESG is fundamental to our culture and our value proposition to our customers, the communities in which we live and do business, and our full range of global stakeholders.
We currently focus our ESG efforts in the following key areas:
Employee Safety, Health and Well-being
Our Journey to Zero commitment is the leading theme of our Global Environmental Health and Safety (“EHS”) Policy and Standards, which serve as the foundation of health and safety programs at each of our manufacturing locations. We strive to continuously reduce occupational injuries and illnesses in all of our operations, and aspire to achieve the goal of zero annual incidents. In November 2020, we received the America’s Safest Companies award from EHS Today. Our enterprise-wide health and safety management system is certified to the ISO 45001:2018 standard.
Environmentally Sustainable Manufacturing and Operations
Semiconductor manufacturing is generally resource-intensive. Therefore, our Journey to Zero commitment also represents our pursuit of sustainable and environmentally efficient manufacturing operations, seeking to minimize environmental- and climate-related impacts from our operations through pollution prevention and resource conservation. Our Global EHS Policy and Standards establish a continual improvement process and performance requirements that apply throughout the company. Our enterprise-wide environmental management system is certified to the ISO 14001:2015 standard. In August 2021, we launched our Journey to Zero Carbon commitment that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by 2030, compared to a 2020 baseline.
As a member of the Responsible Business Alliance (“RBA”), we are committed to responsible sourcing practices. We progressively apply the RBA Code of Conduct to our major suppliers and monitor its application. We encourage and support our suppliers to do the same in our continuous pursuit of excellence in corporate responsibility and extension of responsible practices throughout the supply chain.
Technology Solutions for Humanity
We are focused on creating innovations in the largest and most pervasive segments of the semiconductor industry. As power efficiency has become a critical success factor for our industry, we strive to develop solutions that can lower the power consumption of digital technology.
Human Capital: Diversity & Inclusion and Talent Development
We believe that our success rests on empowering employees to bring their whole selves to the company and that building a culture of inclusion drives better business outcomes. As a global company, we recognize and value the wide variety of cultural values, traditions, experiences, education and perspectives of our team and communities. We previously established a Diversity & Inclusion office and as of December 31, 2021, we employed a multicultural workforce representing more than 90 nationalities across 13 countries. We believe that our culture of inclusion leads to higher levels of belonging, engagement and ultimately, higher-performing teams. We strive to focus on all aspects of the employee lifecycle, including recruitment, retention, professional development, and advancement of diverse talent. As part of this effort, we established our first employee resource group, GLOBALWOMEN, in 2013 to have a positive impact on our business through the enrichment of our female employees. Since then, we have established the Black Resource Affinity Group (B.R.A.G.), Globalfamilies, the United States Veteran’s Resource Group (VRG), and the Early Career and Tenure Resource Group. Employee driven, our employee resource groups support our diversity and inclusion strategy. We use an annual engagement survey process to help measure employee engagement and our diversity and inclusion strategy progress.
Community Support and Engagement
We have a long history of community involvement, with well-established programs and global and local teams dedicated to enriching the lives of the people in our communities around the world. Through our worldwide GlobalGives program, we provide employees with the opportunity to make a positive impact in their local communities through personal donations, company-matched donations as well as through volunteering their time.
Our key stakeholders have a significant interest in our business and help shape our company and the products and services we provide. We regularly engage with our employees, customers, communities, suppliers, and industry peers, sharing perspectives and gaining valuable insight relevant to our business and operations.
C. Organizational Structure
The following is a chart of our current corporate structure as of December 31, 2021:
* Please refer to Note 29 to our Annual Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on our subsidiaries.
D. Property, Plant and Equipment
In 2021, we shipped approximately 2.4 million 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers. We currently operate five manufacturing sites in the following locations: Dresden, Germany; Singapore; Malta, New York; Burlington, Vermont; and East Fishkill, New York.
Our focus on highly-differentiated solutions, quality, security and reliability requires world-class manufacturing capabilities. Since our strategic repositioning in 2018, we have shifted focus to digital, analog, mixed-signal and RF technologies, where we believe we can add significant value. We are streamlining and aligning our manufacturing footprint with this priority.
As part of our strategy to consolidate manufacturing to at-scale sites, on December 31, 2019, we sold our Fab 3E facility and operations in Tampines, Singapore to Vanguard for $236 million.
Furthermore, in April 2019, we agreed to transfer substantially all the assets and employees related to our EFK facility to ON Semiconductor in return for $400 million in consideration and $30 million for a technology license, of which ON Semiconductor paid $100 million upon signing, which included $30 million for the technology license, and an additional $100 million in 2020. This transfer will allow us to refocus investment into differentiated technologies at scale in our three globally diversified 300mm sites in New York, Germany and Singapore. We expect the completion of the asset sale to occur, subject to regulatory approvals, at the end of 2022. Since the transaction was entered into, we have transferred a number of technologies from the EFK facility to our other global manufacturing sites to ensure continuous supply to key customers.
Subsequent to our divestiture of Fab 3E and transfer of the EFK facility, we will have four world-class manufacturing sites on three continents, providing the scale, technology differentiation and geographic diversification that we believe are critically important to our customers’ success.
Our manufacturing sites currently occupy an aggregate area of approximately 6.2 million square meters, which equates to approximately 1,170 U.S.-style football fields. The total clean room space is approximately 255,000 square meters spread across five manufacturing sites. Each site is equipped with thousands of highly sophisticated manufacturing equipment and tools. We currently have more than 7,500 tools across all of our fabs. Each site has dedicated power, water, gas and chemical distribution systems.
Our products have applications that span the global markets from mobility to wireless, wired and satellite communication, to automotive, industrial, consumer electronics, to personal computing, data center, to power, power management, photonics and more, with sizes that range from just a few millimeters square to 400 millimeters square, across our six differentiated technology platforms.
Our Dresden facility is the largest semiconductor manufacturing site in Europe, with approximately 500,000 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers shipped in 2021. The facility occupies an area of approximately 407,000 square meters, with clean room extending over an area of approximately 63,000 square meters, which is home to our CMOS and FDXTM process technologies from 55nm down to the 28/22nm node.
In Germany and the rest of Europe, we employ approximately 3,350 people from over 37 nations.
Our Singapore facility is one of the largest semiconductor foundry manufacturing sites in South-east Asia, with approximately 1,075,000 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers shipped in 2021. The facility occupies an area of approximately 182,000 square meters, with clean room extending over an area of approximately 72,000 square meters, which is home to process technology of 40nm to 0.6 micrometer (“µm”).
In Singapore, we employ approximately 4,000 people, which we believe makes us the second largest semiconductor-related employer and the largest foundry employer in the country.
Malta, New York Facility
Our Malta, New York facility is the largest and most advanced 300mm pure-play foundry site in the United States, with approximately 357,000 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers shipped in 2021. The facility occupies an area of approximately 976,000 square meters, with clean room extending over an area of approximately 42,000 square meters, which is home to our FinFET process technology. We believe that our Malta facility is the most advanced ITAR-compliant semiconductor manufacturing facility of its kind in the world.
At our Malta facility, we employ approximately 2,700 people, which we believe makes the facility one of the largest manufacturing employers in the area.
Burlington, Vermont Facility
Our Burlington, Vermont facility is the largest 200mm pure-play foundry site in the United States with approximately 263,000 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers shipped in 2021. The facility occupies an area of approximately 2.7 million square meters, with clean room extending over an area of approximately 44,000 square meters, which is home to most of our RF process technologies. Our Burlington facility is an accredited member of the DoD’s Trusted Foundry Program.
In the State of Vermont, we employ approximately 2,200 people, which we believe makes us one of the largest private-sector employers in the state.
East Fishkill, New York Facility
Our East Fishkill, New York facility is located in the Hudson Valley. The site has been developing and manufacturing a wide range of technologies in Digital Logic, RF SiPh, and now discrete devices for end-customer applications. This facility shipped approximately 138,000 300mm equivalent semiconductor wafers in 2021. The facility occupies over 2 million square meters, with clean room space extending over an area of approximately 33,000 square meters. We agreed to transfer ownership of this facility to ON Semiconductor by the end of 2022, allowing us to refocus investment into differentiated technologies in our three world-scale 300mm sites in New York, Germany and Singapore.
At the East Fishkill facility, we employ approximately 1,250 people, which we believe makes the facility one of the largest manufacturing employers in the area.
The following table describes each of our core manufacturing facilities as of December 31, 2021:
Our Global Manufacturing Footprint
|Malta, New York||FinFET, RF SOI, SiPh||300||~357||~570|
|Burlington, Vermont||RF SOI, SiGe||200||~263||~275|
FDXTM, NVM, HV, BCDL
East Fishkill, New York(2)
|HP CMOS, RF SOI, SiPh||300||~138||N/A|
|Singapore||BCD/BCDL, HV, NVM, DDI, RF SOI, LP SiGe||300, 200||~1,075|
(1)NVM refers to Non-Volatile Memory. eNVM refers to embedded non-volatile memory.
(2)Transfer of ownership of this facility to ON Semiconductor is expected to be completed by the end of 2022.
(3)Excludes Fab 7 Module 7H 450 kwpa expansion under construction.
In early 2021, we announced plans to accelerate the buildout of capacity within our existing fabs to meet committed customer demand. These investments are expected to add scale with attractive economic returns. For new fab expansions that require additional construction beyond our existing clean rooms, our strategy is to continue to build scale in each of our locations through public/private partnerships, coupled where possible with deep customer commitments, as well as advanced payments and capacity reservation fees to secure supply for our customers.
On June 22, 2021, we announced fab expansion plans in Singapore, with the addition of Module 7H, an extension of our existing 300mm Fab 7 operations. We expect to invest close to $4 billion in capital investments to build and fit out the new module, with construction to be completed by the end of 2023 and first products qualified shortly thereafter. The expansion will be funded in part by the Singapore Economic Development Board (“EDB”) in the form of long-term developmental loans and grants. We anticipate hiring an additional 1,000 people to the site, and once fully ramped, we anticipate having an additional 450,000 wafers of 300mm capacity.
On July 19, 2021, we announced fab expansion plans in Malta, New York, including the construction of a new fab on the same campus. We expect to invest approximately $1 billion in capital investments to expand the capacity of the existing fab by approximately 150,000 wafers per year, to be followed by the construction of an additional fab that we expect to double existing capacity. We are planning to fund the expansion through private/public partnerships in the United States.
ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEWS AND PROSPECTS
How We Generate Revenue
We generate the vast majority of our revenue from wafer fabrication and sales of finished semiconductor wafers, which accounted for approximately 94% of our $6.6 billion of net revenue in 2021. We derived the remainder of our revenue primarily from photomask manufacturing and sourcing services and post-fab manufacturing services. In 2020, our net revenue was $4.9 billion, which included a one-time, non-recurring reduction in revenue due to our moving from recognizing wafer revenue on a Percentage-of-Completion basis to recognizing revenue on a Wafer Shipment basis, as a result of amendments to the majority of our customer contractual terms. See “—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Revenue Recognition.” Had the change in terms not occurred, net revenue in 2020 would have been an estimated $810 million higher than reported results and 2020 cost of revenue would have likewise been higher by an estimated $634 million, with a commensurate decrease in our inventories. In addition, we divested our ASIC business in 2019. The divested business generated $391 million of revenue in 2019.
Components of Results of Operations
We generate the majority of our revenue from volume production and sales of semiconductor wafers, which are priced on a per-wafer basis for the applicable design. We also generate revenue from pre-fabrication services such as rendering of non-recurring engineering (“NRE”) services, mask production and post-fabrication services such as bump, test, and packaging. Pricing is typically agreed prior to production and then updated based on subsequent period negotiations.
We recognize the vast majority of our revenue upon shipment of finished wafers to our customers. Prior to 2020, we recognized wafer revenue primarily on a Percentage-of-Completion basis. In 2020, the majority of our customer contractual terms were amended in a manner that resulted in moving from recognizing wafer revenue on a Percentage-of-Completion basis to recognizing revenue on a Wafer Shipment basis. This resulted in a one-time, non-recurring reduction in net revenue recognized in 2020. Our net revenue in 2020 were $4.9 billion, and had the change in terms not occurred, net revenue would have been an estimated $810 million higher than reported results. In addition, we divested our ASIC business in 2019. The divested business generated $391 million of revenue in 2019.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of material expenses, depreciation and amortization, employee-related expenses, facility costs and costs of fixed assets, including maintenance and spare parts. Costs related to NRE services are also included within the cost of revenue.
Material expenses primarily include the costs of raw wafers, test wafers, photomasks, resists, process gases, process chemicals, other operating supplies and external service costs for wafer manufacturing. Depreciation and amortization charges primarily include the depreciation of clean room production equipment. We depreciate equipment on a straight-line basis over a two- to ten-year period and buildings on a straight-line basis over up to 26 years (or the remaining lease term of related land on which the buildings are erected, if shorter). Prior to 2021, we depreciated equipment on a straight-line basis over a two- to eight-year period. Employee-related expenses primarily include employee wages and salaries, social security contributions and benefits costs for operators, maintenance technicians, process engineers, supply chain, IT production, yield improvement and health and safety roles. Facility costs primarily consist of the costs of electricity, water and other utilities and services.
Our operating expenses consist of R&D and selling, general and administrative expenses. Personnel costs are the most significant component of our operating expenses and consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, share-based compensation, and commissions.
Research and Development (“R&D”)
Our R&D efforts are focused on developing highly-differentiated process technologies and solutions. As part of our strategic repositioning, we shifted our R&D efforts to focus on technologies where we can deliver a 72 highly-differentiated solution and discontinued our R&D-intensive single-digit node program. Our R&D expense includes personnel costs, materials costs, software license and intellectual property expenses, facility costs, supplies, professional and consulting fees, and depreciation on equipment used in R&D activities. Our development roadmap includes new platform investments, platform features and extensions, and investments in emerging technology capabilities and solutions. We expense R&D costs as incurred. We believe that continued investment in our technology portfolio is important for our future growth and acquisition of new customers. We expect our R&D expense as a percentage of revenue to moderately decline over time as revenue increases.
Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”)
SG&A expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs, including sales commissions to independent sales representatives and professional fees, including the costs of accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax compliance. Additionally, costs related to advertising, trade shows, corporate marketing and allocated overhead costs are also included in SG&A expenses.
We expect our SG&A expenses to decrease as a percentage of net revenue. We anticipate that we will incur increased accounting, audit, legal, regulatory, compliance and director and officer insurance costs as well as investor and public relations expenses associated with becoming and operating as a public company.
Other Operating Charges
We review, at each reporting date, or upon occurrence of a triggering event, the carrying amount of our property, plant and equipment and finite lived intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If it is determined that impairment of an asset has occurred, impairment losses are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss to the extent that the recoverable amount, measured at the present value of discounted cash flows attributable to the assets, is less than its carrying value.
Finance expenses consists primarily of interest on borrowings, amortization of debt issuance costs under our term loans, revolving credit facility, finance leases and the other credit facilities we maintain with various financial institutions.
Share of Profit from Joint Ventures
Share of profit from joint ventures relates to our portion of profit and loss in investments that we do not consolidate. See Note 14 in our Annual Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.
Gain on Sale of a Fabrication Facility and ASIC Business
Gain on sale of a fabrication facility and ASIC business relates to the sale of Fab 3E facility in Singapore in December 2019, and the sale of our ASIC business in November 2019.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other income (expense), net consists of one-time gains and losses and other miscellaneous income and expense items unrelated to our core operations. Included are payments received related to a recent legal settlement as part of a patent dispute with one of our competitors, as well as one-time gains related to a remeasurement of existing equity interests.
Income Tax Benefit (Expense)
Income tax expense consists primarily of income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business, which mainly include Germany, Singapore and U.S. federal and state income taxes.
The following discussion covers items for and a comparison between the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021.
A.Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data for the periods indicated:
|For the year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Net revenue||$||5,813 ||$||4,851 ||$||6,585 |
Cost of revenue (1)(2)
|6,345 ||5,564 ||5,572 |
|Gross profit||(532)||(713)||1,013 |
Research and development(1)(2)
|583 ||476 ||478 |
Selling, general and administrative(1)(2)
|446 ||445 ||595 |
|Total operating expense||1,029 ||921 ||1,073 |
|Impairment charges||64 ||23 ||— |
|Other operating charges||64 ||23 ||— |
|Loss from operations||(1,625)||(1,656)||(60)|
|Finance income||11 ||3 ||6 |
|Share of profit of joint ventures||8 ||4 ||4 |
|Gains on sale of a fabrication facility and ASIC business||615 ||— ||— |
|Other income (expense), net||74 ||440 ||(12)|
|Loss before income taxes||(1,147)||(1,363)||(176)|
|Income tax (expense) benefit||(224)||12 ||(78)|
(1)Includes amortization of acquired intangibles:
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Cost of revenue||$||92 ||$||100 ||$||113 |
|Research and development||$||104 ||$||99 ||$||74 |
|Selling, general and administrative||$||46 ||$||85 ||$||20 |
(2)Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Cost of revenue||$||— ||$||— ||$||55 |
|Research and development||$||— ||$||— ||$||22 |
|Selling, general and administrative||$||— ||$||1 ||$||151 |
Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
|$||4,851 ||$||6,585 ||$||1,734 ||35.7 ||%|
Net revenue increased by $1,734 million, or 35.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily a result of 2021 wafer shipment volumes, which increased 17% compared to 2020, resulting in an approximately $900 million increase in wafer revenue compared to 2020 and higher ASPs. In addition, in 2020, the majority of our customer contractual terms were amended in a manner that resulted in moving from recognizing wafer revenue on a Percentage-of-Completion basis to recognizing revenue on a Wafer Shipment basis. This resulted in a one-time, non-recurring reduction in net revenue recognized in 2020. Had the change in terms not occurred, our net revenue in 2020 would have been an estimated $810 million higher than reported results.
Cost of Revenue
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
Cost of revenue
|$||5,563 ||$||5,572 ||$||9 ||0.2 ||%|
|Gross margin ||(14.7)||%||15.4 ||%||+3008bps|
Cost of revenue increased by $9 million, or 0.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in costs of revenue was driven by higher revenue associated with increased wafer shipments. This increase was offset by lower depreciation and amortization expense of $765 million and, to a lesser extent, improvements associated with manufacturing cost reduction initiatives of $210 million. Additionally, 2020 was impacted favorably by the Percentage-of-Completion change, which lowered cost of revenue in that period by approximately $634 million.
Research and Development Expenses
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
Research and development expenses
|$||476 ||$||478 ||$||2 ||0.4 ||%|
|As a % of revenue||9.8 ||%||7.3 ||%|
Research and development expenses remained consistent for the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, increasing by $2 million. The year-over-year change was primarily driven by an increase in share-based compensation expense of $22 million, which was offset by a decrease in amortization of intangible assets of $25 million.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
|$||445 ||$||595 ||$||150 ||33.7 ||%|
|As a % of revenue||9.2 ||%||9.0 ||%|
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $150 million, or 33.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to the employee annual incentive plan (AIP) and share-based compensation of $170 million, as well as IPO-related expenses of $24 million. These increases were partially offset by lower depreciation of PPE and amortization of intangible assets of approximately $65 million.
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
Finance expenses decreased by $40 million, or 26.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was driven by a $325 million reduction in outstanding loan balances and lower interest rates primarily due to a 200bps reduction in margin from a recent refinancing.
Share of profit of joint ventures
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
Share of profit of joint ventures
|$||4 ||$||4 ||$||— ||— ||%|
Share of profit of joint ventures remained flat at $4 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Other Income (expense), net
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
Other income (expense), net
|$||440 ||$||(12)||$||452 |
Other income (expense), net decreased by $452 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease is due to gains of $333 million related to a legal settlement and remeasurement of existing equity interests in 2020, as well as a $98 million reduction in income from gains on tool sales in 2021 compared to 2020.
Income tax (expense) benefit
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)
Income tax (expense) benefit
Income tax expense increased by $90 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is a result of $59 million of increased expense due to increasing taxable income in Europe and Singapore, and a $64 million tax benefit in 2020 resulting from the extension of a tax incentive in Singapore, which was partially offset by a $33 million reduction in withholding tax related to a legal settlement in 2020.
Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Net revenue||$||5,813 ||$||4,851 ||$||(962)||(16.6)||%|
Net revenue decreased by $962 million, or 16.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. In 2020, the majority of our customer contractual terms were amended in a manner that resulted in moving from recognizing wafer revenue on a Percentage-of-Completion basis to recognizing revenue on a Wafer Shipment basis. This resulted in a one-time, non-recurring reduction in net revenue recognized in 2020. Had the change in terms not occurred, our net revenue in 2020 would have been an estimated $810 million higher than reported results. In addition, we divested our Application Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”) business, which generated $391 million of revenue in 2019. These changes were offset by an increase in wafer shipment volume of approximately 272,000.
Cost of Revenue
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Cost of revenue||$||6,345 ||$||5,563 ||$||(782)||(12.3)||%|
Cost of revenue decreased by $782 million, or 12.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was attributable to the change in our customer contractual terms, which were amended in a manner that resulted in moving from recognizing wafer revenue on a Percentage-of-Completion basis to recognizing revenue on a Wafer Shipment basis. Had the change in terms not occurred, our cost of revenue in 2020 would have been an estimated $634 million higher than reported results, with a commensurate decrease in inventories. In addition, we divested our ASIC business in 2019. Cost of revenue related to this business was approximately $150 million in 2019.
Research and Development Expenses
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Research and development expenses||$||583 ||$||476 ||$||(107)||(18.4)||%|
|As a % of revenue||10.0 ||%||9.8 ||%|
Research and development expenses decreased by $107 million, or 18.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was due to the sale of our ASIC business, which incurred research and development expenses of $91 million in 2019, and a $9 million increase in grants and NRE, reducing R&D.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||$||446 ||$||445 ||$||(1)||(0.2)||%|
|As a % of revenue||7.7 ||%||9.2 ||%|
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by $1 million, or 0.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was due to a reduction in administrative expenses related to the ASIC business which was sold to Marvell Technology Group Ltd. (“Marvell”).
Other operating charges
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Other operating charges||$||64 ||$||23 ||$||(41)||(64.1)||%|
Other operating charges decreased by $41 million, or 64.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was due to lower impairment charges in 2020 related to equipment held for sale.
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Finance income||$||11 ||$||3 ||$||(8)||NM|
Finance income decreased by $8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was due to lower cash balances and lower interest rates in 2020 compared to 2019, resulting in a decrease of interest earned.
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Finance expenses||$||230 ||$||154 ||$||(76)||(33.0)||%|
Finance expenses decreased by $76 million, or 33.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was driven by lower outstanding loan balances, and matured loans refinanced with lower interest rates.
Share of profit of joint ventures
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Share of profit of joint ventures||$||8 ||$||4 ||$||(4)||NM|
Share of profit of joint ventures decreased by $4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was due to the consolidation of our AMTC (as defined below) mask operations joint venture in Germany.
Gain on Sale of a Fabrication Facility and ASIC Business
|Year ended December 31,|
|(dollars in millions)|
|Gain on sale of a fabrication facility and application specific integrated circuit business||$||615 ||$||— ||$||(615)||NM|
In 2019, we recorded a $197 million gain on sale of Fab 3E and a $418 million gain on the sale of our ASIC business.
Other Income (Expense), net
|Year ended December 31,||$||$|